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DescriptionThallus: fruticose, shrubby, up to 3 cm long; branching: moderately branched from a narrow holdfast; branches: solid, plane or +canaliculate near the base, lanceolate, 13 mm wide; surface: greenish gray to greenish yellow, smooth, shiny, sorediate; soredia: granular in terminal, helmet-shaped soralia that develop on the ventral surface; pseudocyphellae: very sparse, ellipsoid; cortex: thin; chondroid strands: continuous, smooth, never forming bundles of hyphae; Apothecia: not seen; Pycnidia: not observed; Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-; Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with boninic acid (major), 2'-O-methylsekikaic acid, 2'-O-methylpaludosic acid (both minor).; Substrate and ecology: on bark; World distribution:: North, Central and South America (West Indies, Brazil and Peru); Sonoran distribution: Sinaloa.; Notes: Two chemical races of Ramalina cochlearis, the sekikaic acid aggregate race and the boninic acid aggregate race, were reported by Kashiwadani (1988). In the Sonoran area, however, only the boninic acid race was found. Ramalina cochlearis might be confused with R. disparata Krog & Swinsc., a species reported from East Africa that differs in having dispersed soralia that never form helmet-shaped soralia.