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 Thallus: crustose, continuous or verrucose-areolate, flat or verruculose, thin, opaque, ecorticate; prothallus: not visible, or blackish to bluish brown; surface: yellowish white to yellowish gray or yellowish orange to orange-white or whitish gray to gray; smooth or rough, with an indistinct margin, epruinose, esorediate; Apothecia: sessile or adnate, lecanorine; disc: brown or dark brown to blackish brown, plane, epruinose; margin: concolorous with thallus, thin or thick, persistent, even or prominent, not flexuose, smooth, verrucose or verruculose, without a parathecial ring; amphithecium: present, with numerous algal cells, with large crystals insoluble in K, corticate; cortex: distinct, inspersed, gelatinised, 16-25 µm wide laterally, 20-45 µm wide basally; parathecium: hyaline, lacking crystals; cortex: distinct, hyaline, basally thickened, gelatinous or interspersed, 15-25 µm thick laterally, 25-65 µm thick basally; epihymenium: brown to dark brown, with pigment dissolving in K, with crystals dissolving in K; hymenium: clear, c. 30 µm tall; tips of paraphyses: not thickened or slightly thickened (up to 3 µm wide), not pigmented; subhymenium: hyaline, 15-20 µm thick; hypothecium: hyaline, without oil droplets; asci: clavate, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, (9-)9.5-14 x (6-)6.5-8 µm; wall: less than 1 µm thick; Pycnidia: not seen; Spot tests: K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P- or P+ pale yellow; Secondary metabolites: atranorin (major), chloroatranorin (minor), roccellic acid (major).; Substrate and ecology: on bark or wood; World distribution: restricted to the temperate of the Northern Hemisphere; Sonoran distribution: Arizona and southern California.; Notes: Our circumscription of L. meridionalis differs slightly from that of Brodo (1984). In the study area all specimens referred to that name lacked gangaleoidin, as in the type from Switzerland. The collections included under that name by Brodo (1984) mainly from eastern North America contain gangaleoidin, but seem to agree with the type and the specimens from Arizona in morphology. 


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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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