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 Thallus: crustose, continuous or dispersed-areolate; prothallus: not visible, or blackish to bluish brown; areoles: flat or verruculose, thin, opaque, ecorticate; surface: yellowish white to yellowish gray or whitish gray to gray, smooth or rough, epruinose, with an indistinct margin, esorediate; Apothecia: sessile or adnate, 0.4-0.8 mm in diam., lecanorine; disc: brown or dark brown to blackish brown or gray-brown, plane, epruinose; margin: concolorous with thallus, thin or thick, persistent, even, not flexuose, smooth, entire or verrucose or verruculose, without a parathecial ring; amphithecium: present, with numerous algal cells, with large crystals insoluble in K, corticate; cortex: hyaline, distinct, basally thickened, gelatinous or interspersed, (20-)30-40(-45) µm thick laterally, 35-80 µm thick basally; parathecium: hyaline, lacking crystals; epihymenium: brown to dark brown, with pigment dissolving in K, with crystals dissolving in K; hymenium: hyaline, clear; paraphyses: slightly thickened apically, not pigmented; subhymenium: hyaline, 15-20 µm thick; hypothecium: hyaline, without oil droplets; asci: clavate, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple, broadly ellipsoid, 11.5-17.5 x (7-)7.5-10(-12) µm; wall: more than 1 µm thick; Pycnidia: not seen; Spot tests: K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P- or P+ pale yellow; Secondary compounds: atranorin, chloroatranorin, and roccellic acid.; Substrate and ecology: on bark of conifers, but also some deciduous trees, such as Alnus or Prunus, or wood; World distribution: a circumboreal species occurring in Asia, Europe, and North America; Sonoran distribution: Arizona, southern California, Baja California, and Chihuahua.; Notes: Lecanora circumborealis is characterized by the presence of a thick amphithecial cortex widely expanded at the base, and large and broad spores with thick walls. Sometimes, it can be confused with L. pulicaris, which is separated by a thinner cortex and mostly a different chemistry. 

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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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