Overview

Distribution

Only known from two sites on the small island of Nosy Hara, northern Madagascar. Remarkably, no Brookesia species was recorded during intensive herpetological surveys of Nosy Hara, nearby islands and the adjacent mainland [Metcalf CJE, Hampson K, Gray A, Andrianirina R (2007)], suggesting that B. micra might be difficult to record.

[Glaw F, Köhler J, Townsend TM, Vences M, 2012]

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

A member of the Brookesia minima group based on small body size (SVL<20 mm) and molecular phylogenetic relationships. Brookesia micra is distinguished from all other members of the group by a shorter relative tail length (tail length/SVL 0.37–0.49 versus 0.49–0.92), and by orange coloured tails in life in adults (vs. inconspicuous brownish colour). In addition, from B. confidens by a smaller adult male size (SVL 15.1–15.3 mm vs. 18.3–20.1 mm), supranasal cone present (vs. absent), and hemipenis with comb-like apical structure (vs. narrow without ornaments); from B. dentata by probably smaller adult body size (no measurements of male B. dentata available); from B. exarmata by smaller adult body size (female SVL 18.7–19.9 vs. 25.7–26.5, no male measurements available for B. exarmata); from B. karchei by smaller size (female SVL 18.7–19.9 vs. 30.7, no male measurements available for B. karchei); supraocular cone absent (vs. present); from B. minima by presence of a pelvic spine (vs. absent or indistinct pelvic spine), and hemipenis with comb-like apical structure (vs. balloon-like without ornaments); from B. peyrierasi by a smaller adult male size (SVL 15.1–15.3 mm vs. 19.1–27.4 mm), and hemipenis with comb-like apical structure (vs. bilobed with four spines on each lobe); from B. ramanantsoai by a smaller adult male size (SVL 15.1–15.3 mm vs. 21.7 mm), supraocular cone absent (vs. present in some specimens), and hemipenis with comb-like apical structure (vs. baloon-like without ornaments); from B. tristis by a smaller adult male size (SVL 15.1–15.3 mm vs. 18.0–18.2 mm), and hemipenis with comb-like apical structure (vs. small papillae on apex not arranged comb-like); and from B. tuberculata by supraocular cone absent (vs. present), and hemipenis with comb-like apical structure (vs. crown-like structure). For a distinction from B. desperata, described below, see the diagnosis of this species. Referencing a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, B. micra shows an uncorrected pairwise divergence of 6.8% to its sister clade (B. tristis+B. desperata), and divergences >7.2% to all other species of the B. minima group.

[Glaw F, Köhler J, Townsend TM, Vences M, 2012]

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

B. micra was found during the day active on the ground in a mosaic of eroded limestone boulders and dry forest leaf litter, and at night roosting on branches in very low vegetation (ca. 5–10 cm above the ground).

[Glaw F, Köhler J, Townsend TM, Vences M, 2012]

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Wikipedia

Brookesia micra

Brookesia micra is a species of chameleon from the islet of Nosy Hara in Antsiranana, Madagascar. As of 14 February 2012, it is the smallest known chameleon and among the smallest reptiles, small enough to stand on the head of a match. In length, adult Brookesia micra can grow up to 29 mm (1.1 in).[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

Brookesia micra was discovered and named by a team of researchers led by Frank Glaw of the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology.[2] Glaw and his colleagues have been conducting expeditions into the Madagascan forests for eight years.[3] Members of the species had previously been labelled as Brookesia sp. "Nosy Hara" in 2007 by Glaw and Vences.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The specific epithet of B. micra is a derivation of the Latin form of the Greek word "μικρός" (mikros), which means either "tiny" or "small" and refers to the small body size.[1]

Description[edit]

The males of Brookesia micra reach a maximum snout-vent length of 16 mm (0.63 in), and the total body length of both of the sexes is less than 30 mm (1.2 in), ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates found anywhere in the world.[1] Compared to Brookesia minima, B. micra has a shorter tail and a larger head.[1] Adults of B. micra also have orange tails, as opposed to an inconspicuous brown one.[1] The size of the lizard may be linked to its habitat, due to insular dwarfism.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Brookesia micra, together with three other species, was found in north Madagascar some time between 2003 and 2007.[5] This species was discovered on a small islet off the coast of Madagascar. They typically reside in leaf litter during the day, and climb up into tree branches as high as 10 cm (3.9 in) at night to sleep.[5][6] B. micra lives in an area subject to illegal logging, which may make the species "sensitive to habitat destruction", according to researcher Jorn Köhler.[7]

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Glaw, F.; Köhler, J. R.; Townsend, T. M.; Vences, M. (2012). "Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar". In Salamin, Nicolas. PLoS ONE 7 (2): e31314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031314. PMC 3279364. PMID 22348069.  edit open access publication - free to read
  2. ^ Phelan, Jessica (15 February 2012). "Brookesia micra, world's smallest chameleon, discovered in Madagascar". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  3. ^ Zukerman, Wendy (15 February 2012). "Itsy bitsy teeny weeny chameleons". New Scientist. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  4. ^ Mann, Adam (14 February 2012). "World’s Tiniest Chameleons Found in Madagascar". Wired. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Mustain, Andrea (14 February 2012). "World's Tiniest Chameleon Discovered". Live Science. Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  6. ^ Davies, Ella (15 February 2012). "Tiny lizards found in Madagascar". BBC Nature. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  7. ^ "World's tiniest chameleon discovered". Toronto Sun. Quebecor Media. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
General
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