The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Feng, J., C. Lajia, D.J. Taylor, and M. S. Webster. 2001. Genetic distinctiveness of endangered dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur schaeferi): evidence from mitochondrial control region and Y-linked ZFY intron sequences. The Journal of Heredity 92:9-15.
  • Fernández, M. H. and E. S. Vrba. 2005. A complete estimate of the phylogenetic relationships in Ruminantia: a dated species-level supertree of the extant ruminants. Biological Reviews 80(2):269-302.
  • Gentry, A. W. 2000. Caprinae and Hippotragini (Bovidae, Mammalia) in the Upper Miocene. Pages 65-83 in Antelopes, Deer, and Relatives. E. S. Vrba and G. B. Schaller, eds. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Groves P. and G. F. Shields. 1996. Phylogenetics of the Caprinae based on cytochrome b sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:467-476.
  • Groves, P. and G. F. Shields. 1997. Cytochrome B sequences suggest convergent evolution of the Asian takin and arctic muskox. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 8:363-374.
  • Hartl, G. B., H. Burger, R. Willing, and F. Suchentrunk. 1990. On the biochemical systematics of the Caprini and Rupicaprini. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 18:175–182.
  • Hassanin, A., E. Pasquet, and J.-D. Vigne. 1998. Molecular systematics of the subfamily Caprinae (Artiodactyla, Bovidae) as determined from cytochrome b sequences. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 5:217-236.
  • Kurt, F. and G. B. Hartl. 1995. Socio-ethogram of adult males versus biochemical-genetic variation in assessing phylogenetic relationships of the Caprinae. Acta Theriologica 3(Suppl.):183-197.
  • Lalueza-Fox, C., J. Castresana, L. Sampietro, T. Marques-Bonet, J. A. Alcover, and J. Bertranpetit. 2005. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: Art. No. 70.
  • Ludwig, A. and S. Fischer. 1998. New aspects of an old discussion -phylogenetic relationships of Ammotragus and Pseudois within the subfamily Caprinae based on comparison of the 12S rDNA sequences. Journal of Zoology and Evolutionary Research 36:173-178.
  • Ludwig, V.A. and J. Knoll. 1998. Multivariate morphometrische Analysen der Gattung Ovis Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, Caprinae). Zeitschrift fur Säugetierkunde 63:210-219.
  • Masini, F. and S. Lovari. 1988. Systematics, phylogenetic relationships, and dispersal of the chamois (Rupicapra spp.). Quaternary Research 30:339-349.
  • Ropiquet , A. and A. Hassanin. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of caprines (Bovidae, Antilopinae): the question of their origin and diversification during the Miocene. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43:49–60.
  • Schaller, G. B. 1977. Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 425 p.
  • Shackleton, D. M. 1997. Wild Sheep and Goats and their Relatives: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Caprinae Specialist Group IUCN, Switzerland and Cambridge, Gland, 390 p.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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