Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the northwestern United States, and formerly in southwestern Canada. It ranges from southern British Columbia (where it is apparently extirpated; Powell and Russell 1998) south to northeastern California, northern Nevada, and southern Idaho (Zamudio et al. 1997, Stebbins 2003); eastern and southern range limits have not been precisely determined; there is an old record from extreme southwestern Montana, where current status is unknown (St. John 2002, Werner et al. 2004). Its elevational range extends from around 300 to 1,830 m (1,000 to 6,000 feet) (Stebbins 2003).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Absent

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Southern British Columbia (apparently extirpated; Powell and Russell 1998) south to northeastern California, northern Nevada, and southern Idaho (Zamudio et al. 1997, Stebbins 2003); eastern and southern range limits have not been precisely determined; old record from extreme southwestern Montana, where current status is unknown (St. John 2002, Werner et al. 2004). Elevational range extends from around 300 to 1,830 meters (1,000-6,000 feet) (Stebbins 2003).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 15 cm

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Type Information

Syntype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 11945
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1878
Locality: No Further Locality Data, Oregon, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Yarrow, H. C. 1882. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 5 (299): 443.
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Paratype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 23995
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Durango, Mexico
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M.
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Paratype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 23996
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Durango, Mexico
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M.
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Paratype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 23994
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Durango, Mexico
  • Paratype: Smith, H. M.
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Holotype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 23993
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1896
Locality: Durango, Mexico
  • Holotype: Smith, H. M.
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Syntype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 9199
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Fort Steilacoom, Pierce, Washington, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Yarrow, H. C. 1882. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 5 (299): 443.
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Syntype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 11473
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1878
Locality: Deschutes River, Locality In Multiple Counties, Oregon, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Yarrow, H. C. 1882. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 5 (299): 443.
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Syntype for Phrynosoma douglasii
Catalog Number: USNM 10918
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1881
Locality: Fort Walla Walla, Walla Walla, Washington, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Yarrow, H. C. 1882. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 5 (299): 443.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This lizard ranges from semi-arid plains to high mountains: sagebrush, bunchgrass, pinyon-juniper woodland, openly spaced pines (Stebbins 2003). Usually it occurs in open, shrubby, or openly wooded areas with sparse vegetation at ground level. Soil may vary from rocky to sandy. When not active on the surface, the lizards burrow into the soil or occupy rodent burrows.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: This lizard ranges from semiarid plains to high mountains: sagebrush, bunchgrass, pinyon-juniper woodland, openly spaced pines (Stebbins 2003). Usually it occurs in open, shrubby, or openly wooded areas with sparse vegetation at ground level. Soil may vary from rocky to sandy. When not active on the surface, the lizards burrow into the soil or occupy rodent burrows.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Diet consists primarily of ants and other insects.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Comments: This species is represented by many occurrences scatttered throughout its historical range.

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Global Abundance

10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Comments: Inactive during cold weather; also avoids extreme heat.

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Reproduction

Gives birth to 3-15 young, mainly August to mid-September (Brown et al. 1995). Sexually mature in 2 or more years (Nussbaum et al. 1983).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Hammerson, G.A.

Reviewer/s
Cox, N., Chanson, J.S. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Reptile Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NX - Presumed Extirpated

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

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Population

Population
This species is represented by many occurrences scattered throughout its historical range. The number of occurrences with good viability is unknown, but probably there are many. The total adult population size is unknown but surely exceeds 10,000. The extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, and population size appear to be relatively stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, and population size appear to be relatively stable.

Global Long Term Trend: Increase of 10-25% to decline of 30%

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Threats

Major Threats
No major threats have been identified.
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Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: No major threats have been identified.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in many protected areas.
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Global Protection: Many to very many (13 to >40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: This species occurs in many protected areas.

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Wikipedia

Pygmy short-horned lizard

The pygmy short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglasii ) is a species of small horned lizard that occurs in the northwestern United States. In the past it also occurred in adjacent Canada. Like other horned lizards, it is often called a "horned toad" or "horny toad," but it is not a toad at all. It is a reptile, not an amphibian.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The specific name, douglasii, is in honor of Scottish botanist David Douglas.[3]

Identification[edit]

The pygmy short-horned lizard is often mistaken for its close relative the greater short-horned lizard (P. hernandesi ) which has the same basic body type consisting of small pointed scales around the head and back.[2] Until recent mitochondrial DNA evidence, the greater short-horned was considered to be the same species as the pygmy short-horned. They are now considered distinct species with the pygmy short-horned lizard occupying the northwest portion of the United States and extreme southern British Columbia (now extirpated from Canada).[2] When placed together the two are easily distinguished at full size, the pygmy short-horned lizard being much smaller. The greater short-horned lizard is a highly variable species with different geographic populations exhibiting differences in color, pattern, and size, with some authorities describing five subspecies. The pygmy short-horned lizard ranges in size from 1.25–2.5 in (3.2–6.4 cm) in snout-to-vent length (SVL) and is a flat-bodied, squat lizard with short spines crowning the head.[4] They have a snub-nosed profile and short legs. The trunk is fringed by one row of pointed scales, while the belly scales are smooth. The color is gray, yellowish, or reddish-brown, and there are two rows of large dark spots on the back. When threatened or aggressive, their colors become more intense.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Phrynosoma douglasii ". The Reptile Database. www.reptile-database.org.
  2. ^ a b c Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. California Natural History Guides. Oakland, California: University of California Press. 191 pp. ISBN 978-0520228276.
  3. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael. 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Phrynosoma douglasi, p. 75).
  4. ^ Stebbins, Robert C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians: Third Edition. The Peterson Field Guide Series ®. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. xiii + 533 pp. ISBN 978-0-395-98272-3. (Phrynosoma douglasii, pp. 303-304 + Plate 34 + Map 101).

Further reading[edit]

  • Bell, Thomas. 1828. "Description of a new Species of Agama, brought from the Columbia River by Mr. Douglass [sic]". Trans. Linnean Soc. London 16: 105-107 + Plate X. ("Agama Douglassii [sic]", new species). (in English and Latin).
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Zamudio et al. (1997) examined mtDNA variation in short-horned lizards throughout western North America and concluded that the Pacific Northwest segment of the population should be recognized as a species (P. douglasii) distinct from the species (P. hernandesi) represented in the remainder of the range. In addition, there was no support for the recognition of any of the nominal subspecies; thus each species is best regarded as monotypic. See Hammerson and Smith (1991) for information on the correct spelling of the specific name (formerly douglassii). The specific name is here spelled with a double-i ending, since that is how it was rendered in the original description. The common name used here follows Sherbrooke (2003).


Reeder and Montanucci (2001) examined phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma) based on mtDNA and morphology.

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