The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Paratype: Smith, H. M. 1942. Zoologica. 27 (3+4): 104.
  • Rossman, D. A., N. B. Ford, and R. A. Seigel. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. v + 332


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!