Overview

Comprehensive Description

Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill, 1815)

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: CIRR-307 ; recordedBy: Salvador Zarco Perello ; individualCount: 2 ; Location: continent: America; country: Mexico ; stateProvince: Yucatan; locality: Madagascar Reef ; verbatimDepth: 5 m; verbatimLatitude: 780535.103072; verbatimLongitude: 2373608.16789; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM 15N; verbatimSRS: WGS84; decimalLatitude: 21.443068 ; decimalLongitude: -90.293373 ; Event: samplingProtocol: Photosampling ; eventDate: 20/9/2007 ; Record Level: collectionID: YUC-PEC_239-01-64; institutionCode: UMDI-SISAL ; collectionCode: CIRR

Distribution

Western Atlantic. Maine to Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico.

  • Zarco Perello, Salvador, Moreno Mendoza, Rigoberto, Simoes, Nuno (2014): Checklist of Fishes from Madagascar Reef, Campeche Bank, Mexico. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1100: 1100-1100, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1100
Public Domain

Plazi

Source: Plazi.org

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Biology

Migrates in large schools over great distances along the shore. Larvae are found in surface waters between 19.6° and 29.8°C with salinities of 28.3 to 37.4 ppt. Feeds mainly on small fishes (clupeoids and anchovies), few quantities of penaeoid shrimps and cephalopods. Casting, live-bait fishing, jigging, and drift fishing are also employed in capturing this species. Aerial spotting is sometimes used in locating the fish. Marketed fresh, frozen or smoked; eaten pan-fried, broiled and baked.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Scomberomorus cavalla, like other scombrid fishes, is elongate, compressed and fusiform. There are 2 dorsal fins, the first of which is triangular in shape and blue-black in color anteriorly. The seconddorsal fin is greenish in color and concave, originating slightly in front of the anal fin, which is similarly shaped and equivalent in size. A series of 7 - 10 (usually 8) finlets lie posterior to both the second dorsal fin and the anal fin (Collette and Nauen 1983). The lateral line curves slightly downward towards the caudal peduncle. The caudal fin is high and lunate, with a narrow caudal peduncle that has a keel. The pectoral fins are relatively long and lack scales. Body color is typically dark blue to blue-green dorsally, silver laterally. The sides are marked with small, yellow to orange oblong spots above the lateral line. The pectoral fins are pale yellow with orange-brown edges, while the anal and ventral fins are white (Berrien and Finan 1977ab).
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is present in the Western Atlantic from Cape Cod to Miami (USA) and the Gulf of Mexico coasts from Florida, USA to Yucatan, Mexico.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: from Cape Cod to Miami (USA) and Gulf of Mexico coasts from Florida, USA to Yucatan, Mexico
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Cape Cod to Miami (USA) and Gulf of Mexico coasts from Florida, USA to Yucatan, Mexico. Three species namely: Scomberomorus tritor in eastern Atlantic, Scomberomorus sierra in eastern Pacific, and Scomberomorus brasiliensis in the Caribbean and Atlantic coast of South America have often been confused with this species. Absent in the Bahamas (Ref. 26938).
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In the western Atlantic, Scomberomorus maculatus inhabits coastal waters from the Gulf of Maine to the Yucatan Peninsula (Collette et al. 1978; Godcharles and Murphy 1986). During the summer months, they are commonly found as far north as Chesapeake Bay, while in fall and winter, they are most common in the waters off central and southern Florida. Spanish mackerel typically come closer to beaches and enter the lower reaches of estuaries more often than do king mackerel (Godcharles and Murphy 1986). Spanish mackerel from as many as 6 geographic areas may mix in the waters off south Florida in the winter months, however, electrophoretic evidence suggests that the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico populations spawn in the northern parts of their respective ranges, in isolation from other populations (Wollam 1970). Further, the Gulf population is distinct from Spanish mackerel captured along the eastern U.S. coast (Skow and Chittenden 1981). Though not considered common within the India River Lagoon, adult Spanish mackerel are sometimes observed around inlet areas. Juveniles may utilize seagrasses as nursery habitat.
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Western Atlantic.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Both coasts of North America, north commonly as far as Chesapeake Bay in the Atlantic, and to Maine as a stray; south to Brazil.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C.,1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 17 - 19; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 - 20; Analsoft rays: 17 - 20; Vertebrae: 51 - 53
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Maximum size: 830 mm FL
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Max. size

91.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637)); max. published weight: 5,890 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 72462)
  • Altman, P.L. and D.S. Dittmer 1962 Growth, including reproduction and morphological development. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Ref. 72462)
  • IGFA 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA. (Ref. 40637)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Spanish mackerels live approximately 5-8 years (Kilma 1959; Powell 1975) and may weigh over 12 pounds. Males reach approximately 50 cm fork length (FL), while females reach 70 cm FL (Johnson et al. 1983; Godcharles and Murphy 1986). Powell (1975) reported that females grow faster than males, and that fish of the same age tend to be smaller in the Gulf of Mexico than in the South Atlantic. Schmidt et al. (1993) reported that females live longer and grow larger that males.
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

to 83 cm FL (male/unsexed); max. weight: 4,800 g.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C.,1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Interpelvic process small and bifid. Lateral line gradually curving down toward caudal peduncle. Vertebrae 21-22 precaudal plus 30-31 caudal, total 51-53. Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs. Swim bladder absent. Body covered with small scales. First dorsal fin black anteriorly and at distal margin posteriorly. Generally silvery with sides marked with about three rows of round to elliptical dark spots (orange in life).
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

The Spanish mackerel is potentially confused with both the cero, Scomberomorus regalis, and the king mackerel, S. cavalla. It is easily distinguished from the king mackerel by its oblong yellowish spots above the lateral line, which does not curve downward at the second dorsal fin as is observed in king mackerel. The cero is distinguished from the Spanish mackerel by 1 - 2 thin, bronze-colored stripes that run mid-laterally along the body, and by scales on the pectoral fins, a feature absent from both Spanish and king mackerels (Collette and Nauen 1983).
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a migratory species that moves north along the Atlantic coast of the United States and north and west along the Gulf of Mexico in the spring and returns in the fall (Collette and Russo 1984). It can also enter estuaries. Larvae are found in surface waters between 19.6–29.8°C with a salinity of 28.3–37.4 ppt. It feeds mainly on small fishes (clupeoids and anchovies), but also on penaeoid shrimps and cephalopods.

Maximum size length estimate this species is 91 cm fork length (FL). Sexual maturity in Florida is attained by age two at 25–32 cm FL for females and 28–34 cm for males (Klima 1959). This species lives to nine years in the Gulf of Mexico (Fable et al. 1987), and to 11 years in the Atlantic (Schmidt et al.1993). Generation length is estimated to be four years.

The all-tackle angling record is of a 5.89 kg fish taken in Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina in 1987 (IGFA 2011). This is a migratory species that moves north along the Atlantic coast of the United States and north and west along the Gulf of Mexico in the spring and returns in the fall (Collette and Russo 1984).

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Marine

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migrates in large schools over great distances along the shore.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 10 - 35 m (Ref. 26912)
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 1449 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 385 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 183
  Temperature range (°C): 11.047 - 25.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 8.158
  Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.379
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.872 - 6.429
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.099 - 0.733
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 5.183

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 183

Temperature range (°C): 11.047 - 25.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.289 - 8.158

Salinity (PPS): 32.507 - 36.379

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.872 - 6.429

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.099 - 0.733

Silicate (umol/l): 0.756 - 5.183
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth: 10 - 35m.
From 10 to 35 meters.

Habitat: pelagic.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© FishWise Professional

Source: FishWise Professional

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pelagic; marine; depth range 10 - 35 m. Forms large schools to migrate great distances along the shore.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C.,1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
  • Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Migrates northward from Florida along the Atlantic coast of the USA to Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island bet. Late Feb.-Jul., and back in fall. It overwinters in Florida. There are schools migrating westwards in early spring, reaching Texas in late March. North-south movements along the Mexican coast occur between Aug.-Nov. and back in Mar.-Apr. Feeds mainly on small fishes (clupeoids and anchovies), few quantities of penaeoid shrimps and cephalopods. Juveniles have a higher percentage of anchovies in their diet than adults. Piscivore (Ref. 57616). Casting, live-bait fishing, jigging, and drift fishing are also employed in capturing this species. Aerial spotting is sometimes used in locating the fish.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen 1983 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Partner Web Site: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Spanish mackerel are schooling pelagic carnivores that feed primarily on estuarine-dependent species such as menhaden (Brevoortia sp.) and anchovies (Anchoa), with squid being the most prevalent invertebrate prey (Godcharles and Murphy 1986). Juveniles are primarily piscivorous, with anchovies, menhaden, Spanish sardines, and Atlantic thread herring constituting the bulk of the diet. Less common prey types are mullets (Mugil spp.) and sciaenids. Habitats: Typical habitat for Spanish mackerel includes surface waters of nearshore coastal waters and the lower reaches of tidal estuaries and bays where salinity tends to remain above 10 ppt. Typical depth distribution ranges from 10 - 35 meters (33 - 115 feet).
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Feeds mainly on small fishes (clupeoids and anchovies), and some penaeid shrimps and cephalopods.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C.,1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Juvenile king mackerel sometimes mix with schools of Spanish mackerel (Godcharles and Murphy 1986). Larvae and juveniles of king mackerel are consumed as prey by species such as the little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) and dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus). Larger king mackerel are sought after by the little tunny, bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops trucatus) (Cato and Prochaska 1976), and various shark species, including the tiger shark (Galeoverdo cuverie), bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), and dusky shark (C. obscurus) (Bigelow and Schroeder 1948).
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diseases and Parasites

Caligus Infestation 2. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
  • Lin, C.-L. and J.-s. Ho 2002 Two species of siphonostomatoid copepods parasitic on pelagic fishes in Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 29(4):313-332. (Ref. 48562)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Spanish mackerels are not abundant inside the IRL except near inlet mouths; however, they are known to aggregate in large numbers in offshore waters and support a commercial fishery. Locomotion: Though scombrid fishes are known for high performance locomotion, data are limited on the precise mechanisms that enhance their swimming abilities. Thrust is generated with lift-based swimming whereby the narrow caudal peduncle and high, lunate caudal fin produce more than 90% of the thrust, with few significant lateral movements in other areas of the body.It has been hypothesized that the finlets on the posterior dorsal and ventral surfaces of scombrids aid locomotion, and may, in fact, be accessory locomotor structures that act to deflect water longitudinally to the area of the keels, where flow is then accelerated (Walters 1962). A study by Nauen and Lauder (2001) supported this hypothesis and showed that finlets do redirect cross-peduncle flow in the horizontal plane.
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Feeds mainly on small fishes (clupeoids and anchovies), few quantities of penaeoid shrimps and cephalopods
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Spanish mackerel have an extended spawning season (Powell 1975, Schmidt et al. 1993), with ripe females collected from April through September in Florida. Larvae are collected from May through September at locations between Cape Canaveral, Florida north to Cape Fear, North Carolina.Spawning season begins in April in the Carolinas, June in Chesapeake Bay, and August - September in New Jersey and New York (Earll, 1883). Water temperatures in excess of 25ºC, and salinity between 30 - 36 parts per thousand (ppt) are spawning triggers (Hoese 1907; Beaumariage 1970). Larval collection data indicate that spawning occurs at depths of 12-35 meters over the inner continental shelf (McEachran et al 1980). Female Spanish mackerel mature in Florida waters by approximately Age 1, when they reach 25 - 35 cm FL. Males mature at a slightly smaller size (Schmidt et al. 1993). Fecundity increases with increasing length and weight (Finucane and Collins unpublished in: Godcharles and Murphy 1986), with females between 35 - 66 cm FL producing between 194,000 to 1.5 million eggs.
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Eggs and larvae planktonic.
  • Bigelow, H. B. and Schroeder,W. C.,1953; Collette, B. B. and C. E. Nauen, 1983; Whiteheat, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., 1984.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Gulf of Maine - CoML

Source: Gulf of Maine Area Census of Marine Life

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Pelagic eggs measuring 0.9 - 1.3 mm in diameter are round and transparent, containing a single oil droplet. Hatching occurs approximately 25 hours after fertilization at water temperatures averaging 26ºC (Smith 1907).Larvae and early juveniles grow 1.9 mm per day for approximately the first 23 days of life. From 23 - 40 days, growth is accelerated, with young fishes growing as much as 5 mm per day. Thereafter, growth slows to approximately 2.1 mm per day (Schmidt et al. 1993, Peters and Schmidt 1997).
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Scomberomorus maculatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 12 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CATGCCTTTGTTATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCAATCATAATCCGAGGGTTTGGAAACTGACTTATTCCTTTAATG---ATCGGGGCCCCTGATATAGCATTCCCCCGAATGAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTCTTACCCCCCTCTTTCCTGCTTCTCCTCGCCTCTTCTGGAGTCGAAGCCGGGGCCGGAACTGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCACCCCTTGCCGGTAATCTAGCCCACGCTGGAGCATCCGTCGATTTA---ACCATCTTCTCTCTTCATCTCGCAGGTATTTCTTCAATTCTTGGGGCAATTAACTTTATCACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCCCAGTACCAAACACCTTTATTTGTATGAGCAGTACTAATTACAGCTGTTCTACTCCTTCTATCACTTCCAGTTCTTGCCGCC---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTTACAGACCGAAATCTAAATACAACCTTCTTTGACCCCGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATCCTGTATCAGCACCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGTCACCCCGAAGTCTATATTCTTATCCTTCCCGGATTTGGAATAATTTCCCACATTGTTGCCTACTACTCCGGTAAAAAA---GAACCTTTCGGATACATGGGAATGGTATGAGCCATGATGGCCATCGGCCTACTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCCCATCACATATTTACAGTAGGTATAGACGTAGACACACGAGCATACTTCACATCCGCAACTATAATCATCGCAATTCCAACTGGGGTAAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTC---GCAACCCTTCACGGAGGT---GCCGTTAAATGAGAAACTCCCCTCCTTTGAGCTATCGGCTTCATCTTCCTCTTTACAGTAGGGGGACTAACAGGAATCGTCCTAGCCAATTCATCTCTAGATATTGTTCTCCACGACACATATTACGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTATGTT---CTCTCAATGGGGGCTGTATTTGCCATCGTTGCC---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GCT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scomberomorus maculatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 12
Specimens with Barcodes: 31
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., Fox, W., Graves, J., Juan Jorda, M., Nelson, R. & Oxenford, H.

Reviewer/s
Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is under a conservative management regime in the north Atlantic U.S. and assessments estimate that the stock is not over-fished and not undergoing overfishing. Based on a NOAA 2003 (US Gulf of Mexico) and SEDAR 2008 (Southeast Atlantic) assessments there is no current indication of decline. Recent data from the southern Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan indicate that the species is fully-exploited. This species is listed as Least Concern.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This is an important recreational, commercial and artisanal species throughout its range. Homogenous distribution of genetic variance among samples from widely spaced geographic regions (Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Gulf of Mexico) was consistent with the hypothesis that Spanish Mackerel comprise a single intermingling genetic stock (Buonaccorsi et al. 2001). Although there are no genetic differences between the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks, they are managed separately. Total catch reported is probably underestimated due to reporting of unclassified Scomberomorus species captures as well as the probably inadequate reporting of artisanal and recreational catches (Manooch et al. 1978). International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) annual catches reached 16,725 t in 1996. Average estimated landings from 1980 to 2004 is 12,739 t with a drop-off between 1998 through 2003 where landings oscillated between 8,000–10,000 t then increasing again to just below 14,000 t in 2004 (ICCAT 2006).

In the 1980s, this species was considered overfished throughout its US range. Posterior management measures have been effective in rebuilding the stocks to currently healthy levels. The spawning stock biomass (SSB) is currently higher than the SSB maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and fishing mortality (F) is lower than FMSY for both the U.S. south Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks (SEDAR 2008, NMFS 2003). The fishery independent Seamap index from 1990 to 2007 shows that there is a lot of variation in age one biomass, but there is no current indication of decline (SEDAR 2008).

In Mexico, a 1994 assessment found that the stock on the Mexican side was slightly under-exploited (Chavez 1994). More recent data from the Institute Nacional de Pesca (2004) show this species to be fully-exploited. Catches have been in decline since 1994 in Mexico however, there is uncertainty surrounding the causes of the decline.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
This is a highly commercial fish taken by gillnets, purse seines and on line gear. Casting, live-bait fishing, jigging, and drift fishing are also employed in capturing this species in the recreational fishery. Aerial spotting is sometimes used in locating the fish.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Least Concern (LC)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is managed in the US under the Fishery Management Plan for Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources. The management bodies are the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) and the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (GMFMC). The management plan establishes a number of conservation measures that have helped to recuperate Spanish Mackerel fisheries including determine quotas, bag limits and trip limits. Drift gill nets were banned in 1989.

There are no known species specific conservation actions in place in Mexico.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: medium; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1992 FAO yearbook 1990. Fishery statistics. Catches and landings. FAO Fish. Ser. (38). FAO Stat. Ser. 70:(105):647 p. (Ref. 4931)
  • International Game Fish Association 1991 World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA. (Ref. 4699)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© FishBase

Source: FishBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fisheries Importance: COMMERCIAL FISHERY: Florida accounts for 78% of the national commercial harvest of Spanish mackerel annually. The bulk of the commercial catch in east central Florida is taken between Cape Canaveral and Palm Beach, Florida (Klima 1959; Powell 1975). On the West coast of Florida, most of the catch is taken south of Tampa Bay and Ft. Myers. The statewide commercial catch of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, between the years 1987 - 2001 was 65.0 million pounds, with a dollar value of over $28.0 million. Within the 5 county area encompassing the IRL (Volusia, Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie and Martin Counties) the commercial catch of Scomberomorus maculatus accounts for approximately 57% of the statewide total, with a harvest of 37.1 million pounds, and a value in excess of $16.5 million.This ranks the Spanish mackerel eighth in commercial value within the IRL, and fourth in pounds harvested.Figure 1 below shows the dollar value of the Spanish mackerel fishery to IRL counties by year. As shown, commercial catch ranged from a low of $642,494 in 1992 to highs of over $1.3 million in 1988, 1993 and 1995. St. Lucie and Martin Counties in the southern portion of the IRL account for the bulk of the commercial harvest, with 45% and 27% of the catch respectively (Figure 2). After 1992, a significant portion of the harvest (21%) was taken off Brevard County. From 1987 - 2001, the annual dollar value to St. Lucie County ranged from $244,792 to $750554, averaging $488,167. In Martin County, the annual dollar amount ranged from $106,247 to $549,314, averaging $300,321; and in Brevard County, the annual dollar amount ranged from $18,823 to $568,467, averaging $232,685.RECREATIONAL FISHERY: Spanish mackerel are also prized as an excellent recreation species. (NMFS 2005; Godcharles and Murphy 1986). Recreational anglers harvest Spanish mackerel seasonally throughout Florida's coastal zone, with the bulk of the catch taken in east central Florida, and along the Gulf coast (FWRI unpubl.). Total landings in Florida for Spanish mackerel in 2001 were 7.3 million pounds, with the recreational catch accounting for 59% of this total (FWRI unpbl.). The information below reflects angler survey information taken from the 5-county area that encompasses the Indian River Lagoon. Over 2 million Spanish mackerel, the bulk of the recreational harvest (73.5%), was taken in coastal waters from the shoreline to 3 miles offshore. Catches in waters 3 to 200 miles offshore account for 9.3% of the total recreational catch, while inland waters other than the Indian River Lagoon account for 8.0% of the catch. The Indian River Lagoon accounted for 9.2% of the total recreational harvest between 1997 and 2004, with approximately 256,000 Spanish mackerel captured.
  • Beaumariage, D.S. 1973. Age, growth, and reproduction of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in Florida: Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 1. 45 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 1977b. Biological and fisheries data on Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 9.40 pp.
  • Berrien P. and D. Finan. 197a7. Biological and fisheries data on king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier). U.S. National Mariner Fisheries Service, Sandy Hook Laboratory, Highlands, NJ. Tech. Ser. Rep. 8. 40 pp.
  • Bigelow, H.B. and W.C. Schroeder. 1948. Fishes of the western north Atlantic (Lancets, cyclostomes, sharks). Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven CT. 546 pp.
  • Briggs, J.C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution. Bull. Fla. State Mus. Biol. Sci. 2(8). 318 pp.
  • Burns, K.M. 1981. Seasonal and areal distribution of scombrid larvae in the vicinity of Palm Beach, Florida. M.A. Thesis. University of South Florida. Tampa. 66 pp.
  • Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen. 1983. FAO Species Catalog. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2). 137 pp.
  • Collette, B.B., J.L. Russo, and L.A. Zavala-Camin. 1978. Scomberomorus brasiliensis, a new species of Spanish mackerel from the western Atlantic. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 76(1): 273-280.
  • Dwinell, S.E. and C.R. Futch. 1973. Spanish and king mackerel larvae and juveniles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, June through October, 1969. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leafl. Serv. 4(24). 14 pp.
  • Earll, R.E. 1883. The Spanish mackerel, Cybium maculatum (Mitch.), Ag.; its natural history and artificial propagation, with an account of its origin and development of the fishery. Rep. U.S. Comm. Fish Fish. (1880) pt. 8:395-424.
  • Godcharles, M.F. and M.D. Murphy. 1986. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida) King mackerel and Spanish mackerel. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Reports. 82(11.58). U.S Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp.
  • Hoese, H.D. 1965. Spawning of marine fishes in the Port Aransas, Texas, areaas determined by the distribution of young and larvae. Ph. D. Diss. Univer. Texas, Austin. 144 pp.
  • Johnson, A.G., W.A. Fable Jr., M.L. Williams, and L.E. Barger. 1983. Age, growth and mortality of king mackerel , Scomberomorus cavalla, from the Southeastern United States. U.S. NMFS Fish. Bull. 81(1):97-106.
  • Klima, E.F. 1959. Aspects of the biology and fishery for Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchell), of southern Florida. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Tech. Ser. 27. 39 pp.
  • McEachran, J.D. , J.H. Finucane and L.S. Hall. 1980. Distribution, seasonality and abundance of king and Spanish mackerel larvae in the northwestern Gulf ofMexico (Pisces: Scombridae). Northeast Gulf Sci. 4(1):1-16.
  • Muro, I.S.R. 1943. Revisions of Australian species of Scomberomorus. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 12(21):65-69.
  • Nauen, J.C. and G.V. Lauder. 2001. Locomotion in scombrid fishes: visualizationof flow around the caudal peduncle and finlets of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Journal of Experimental Biology. 204:2251-2263.
  • Naughton, S.P. and C.H. Saloman. 1981. Stomach contents of juveniles of king mackerel (Scombromorus cavalla) and Spanish mackerel (S. maculatus). Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):71-74.
  • Peters, J.S. and D.J. Schmidt. 1997. Daily age and growth of larval and early juvenile Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, from the South Atlantic Bight. Fish. Bull. 95(3): 530-539.
  • Powell, D. 1975. Age, growth and reproduction in Florida stocks of Spanish mackerel, Scomberomus, maculatus. Fla. Mar. Res. Publ. 5. 21 pp.
  • Schmidt, D.S., M.R. Collins, and D.M. Wyanski. 1993. Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spanish Mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, for the Atlantic Coast of the southeastern U.S. Fish. Bull. 91:526-533.
  • Skow,L.C. and M.E. Chittenden Jr. 1981. Difference in hemoglobin phenotypes among Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus. Northeast Gulf Sci. 5(1):67-70.
  • Smith, H.M. 1907. The fishes of North Carolina. N.C. Geol. Econ. Surv. 2. 433 pp.
  • Springer, V.G. and K.D. Woodburn, 1960. An ecological study of the fishes of the Tampa Bay area. Fla. Board Conserv. Mar. Res. Lab. Prof. Pap. Ser. 1. 104 pp.
  • Walters, V. 1962. Body form and swimming performance in the scombrid fishes.Am. Zool. 2:143-149.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1978. King mackerel tagging and stock assessment study (unpl.) Completion report to Natl. Marine Fisheries Service, Florida DNR. PL 88-309: Project No. 2-254-r. 70 pp.
  • Williams, R.O. and R. G. Taylor. 1980. The effect of water temperature and winter air temperature on springtime migrations of king mackerel in the vicinity of Tampa Bay, Florida. Fla. Sci. 43(suppl):26. (abstr).
  • Wollam, M.B. 1970. Description and distribution of larvae and early juveniles of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier), and Spanish mackerel, S. maculatus (Mitchill); (Pisces:Scombridae); in the Western North Atlantic.Fla. Dept. Nat. Res. Lab. Tech. Serv. 61. 35 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Atlantic Spanish mackerel

The Atlantic Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus, is a migratory species of mackerel that swims to the Northern Gulf of Mexico in spring, returns to south Florida in the Eastern Gulf, and to Mexico in the Western Gulf in the fall.

Contents

Description

The fish exhibits a green back; its sides are silvery marked with about three rows of round to elliptical yellow spots. Lateral line gradually curving down from the upper end of the gill cover toward caudal peduncle. The first (spiny) dorsal fin is black at the front. Posterior membranes are white with a black edge. Its single row of cutting edged teeth in each jaw (around sixty-four teeth in all) are large, uniform, closely spaced and flattened from side to side. As with the King mackerel and the Cero mackerel, these teeth look very similar to those of the Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix.

Distribution/habitat

Spanish mackerel occur seasonally from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts. They are a shallow water species, preferring sand bottom in depths of 10 to 40 feet (3 to 12 m), occasionally found as deep as 80 feet (24 m).

Migration patterns

It appears that one Atlantic and one or more Gulf groups of Spanish mackerel occur in Florida waters. With rising water temperatures, the Atlantic group migrates along the Atlantic coast of the United States from Miami Florida, beginning in late February through July reaching as far as southern Cape Cod, Massachusetts, then returning in fall. An Eastern Gulf group moves northward from the Florida Keys during late winter and spring, appearing off the central West Coast of Florida about April 1. Movement continues westward and terminates along the northern Texas coast. During fall, this group migrates back to its wintering grounds in the Keys.

Life history

The Gulf group of Spanish mackerel spawn in batches from May to September off shore of Texas, off the Gulf shore of Florida as early as April in some years. The Atlantic group spawns starting in April off the Carolinas and from late August to late September in the northernmost part of its range. Spanish mackerel mature by age-1 at a fork length (FL) of 14 inches (36 cm). Females live longer and grow to larger sizes than males. Females may live as long as 11 years, growing to 11 pounds (5.0 kg) and 33 inches (84 cm) FL. Males reach about age-6 and 19 inches (48 cm) FL.[3]

Feeding habits

Spanish mackerel are voracious, opportunistic, carnivores. As with other members of the genus, food consists mainly of small fishes with lesser quantities of shrimp and squid. Striped anchovies (Engraulidae) and clupeoids such as menhaden, alewives and thread herring (Opisthonema), are particularly important forage in North Carolina, Florida, Texas, and Veracruz. The percentage of anchovies consumed is higher for juveniles than for adults.

Fisheries

Commercial capture of Atlantic mackerel in tonnes from 1950 to 2009

Fishing gear and methods

Spanish mackerel are a highly valued fish throughout their range from North Carolina to Texas. Recreational anglers catch Spanish mackerel from boats while trolling or drifting and from boats, piers, jetties, and beaches by casting spoons and jigs and live-bait fishing. Fast lure retrieves are key to catching these quick fish. Commercial methods are primarily run-around gill netting, and rarely, by trolling lures similar to those used by recreational anglers.

Management

Spanish mackerel are managed in commercial and recreation fisheries with bag limits, size limits, commercial trip limits, and with only seasonal fishing allowed. The management of mackerel has been considered a success because the population used to be in decline, but is now on the rise without overfishing occurring.

Nutrition and processing

Spanish mackerel are primarily marketed fresh or frozen as fillets as commercially caught fish are too small to sell in the form of steaks. Their raw flesh is white. They may be prepared by broiling, frying, baking or, rarely, by smoking.

The Spanish mackerel is also a popular fish among devotees of sushi who prize it for its flavor.

Similar species

Spanish mackerel are similar in appearance to small King mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) and Cero mackerel (Scomberomorus regalis). All three are very similar in shape and coloration. They may be distinguished as follows:

The lateral line on Spanish and Cero mackerel slopes gradually from the top edge of the gill to the tail. In contrast that of the king mackerel takes an abrupt drop at mid-body.

The first (spiny) dorsal on Spanish and Cero mackerel has a prominent black patch. The King mackerel has none. As all three species normally keep the first dorsal folded back in a body groove, this difference is not immediately evident.

Spanish mackerel have prominent yellow spots on the flanks at all sizes. In addition to such spots, Cero mackerel have one or more yellow stripes along the centerline. Young King mackerel have similar, but slightly smaller spots; these fade away on individuals weighing over 10 pounds (4.5 kg), but they may still be seen as spots of slightly darker green on the upper back from some angles of view.

World wide there are many members of this genus quite similar to one or another of these three species. In particular, off Mexico, Atlantic Spanish mackerel may be confused with Serra Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus brasiliensis) which may appear in the same area.

See also

References

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!