The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Collette, Bruce B., Jan R. McDowell, and John E. Graves. 2006. Phylogeny of recent billfishes (Xiphioidei). Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 79, no. 3. 455-468
  • H. L. Fierstine and J. E. Starnes. 2005. Xiphiorhynchus cf. X. eocaenicus (Woodward, 1901), (Scombroidei: Xiphiidae: Xiphiorhynchinae) from the middle Eocene of Mississippi, the first transatlantic distribution of a species of Xiphiorhynchus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(2):280-287
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • Orrell, Thomas M., Bruce B. Collette, and G. David Johnson. 2006. Molecular data support separate scombroid and xiphioid clades. Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 79, no. 3. 505-519
  • WoRMS (2013). Scombroidei. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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