Overview

Comprehensive Description

Derivation of specific name

gazensis: of Gazaland, a historic name for Southern Mozambique.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Description

Small shrub, 1-2m tall. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets elliptic-oblong, oblanceolate or obovate, 1-4 cm long, hairless above, pubescent beneath; margins often rolled under; petiole 5-16 mm long. Stipules 1-4 mm long, triangular-lanceolate, recurved. Flowers in few-flowered racemes or sometimes solitary, terminal, often on short lateral branches; bracts up to 2.5 mm long, linear-lanceolate; bracteoles inserted on the pedicel, small and filiform. Standard subcircular, yellow, sometimes with darker lines or reddish tinge; wings longer than the keel; keel 7-10 mm long, strongly rounded and crested behind a short beak. Pods 2-3 cm long, subcylindrical, pubescent.
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Derivation of specific name

gazensis: of Gazaland, a historic name for Southern Mozambique.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Description

Herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees (capensis and pallidicaulis). Stipules filiform to leaf-like, or 0. Leaves simple, 1-foliolate or digitately 3(-7)-foliolate, usually petiolate. Flowers usually yellow, variously marked, less often white or blue, usually in terminal leaf-opposed or less commonly axillary racemes or heads; bract and paired bracteoles usually present. Calyx usually with 5 subequal lobes. Standard usually with 2 appendages at the base inside; keel rounded to angled, generally with a well-developed beak. Stamens joined in a sheath; anthers arranged alternately with 5 long, basifixed and 5, smaller, dorsifixed. Style curved or geniculate, usually with 1-2 lines of hairs in the upper part, the basal portion thicker than the upper. Legume usually inflated, 1-many seeded.
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
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Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Crotalaria (Crotalaria, Zizyphus) is prey of:
Leporidae
Gerbillinae
Antilopinae
Boselaphus tragocamelus
Antilope cervicapra
Gazella
Rodentia
Canis aureus
Canis lupus

Based on studies in:
India, Rajasthan Desert (Desert or dune)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • I. K. Sharma, A study of ecosystems of the Indian desert, Trans. Indian Soc. Desert Technol. and Univ. Center Desert Stud. 5(2):51-55, from p. 52 and A study of agro-ecosystems in the Indian desert, ibid. 5:77-82, from p. 79 1980).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:285Public Records:26
Specimens with Sequences:251Public Species:14
Specimens with Barcodes:250Public BINs:0
Species:205         
Species With Barcodes:201         
          
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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Crotalaria

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Crotalaria

Crotalaria is a genus of herbaceous plants and woody shrubs in the Family Fabaceae (Subfamily Faboideae) commonly known as rattlepods. Some 600 or more species of Crotalaria are described worldwide, mostly from the tropics; at least 500 species are known from Africa. Some species of Crotalaria are grown as ornamentals. The common name rattlepod or rattlebox is derived from the fact that the seeds become loose in the pod as they mature, and rattle when the pod is shaken. The name derives from the Greek κροταλον, meaning "castanet", and is the same root as the name for the rattlesnakes (Crotalus).

Crotalaria species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita sericeus, Etiella zinckenella and Utetheisa ornatrix. The toxic alkaloids produced by some members of this genus are known to be incorporated by Utetheisia larvae and used to secure their defense from predators.[3]

Notable species[edit]

Alkaloid monocrotaline, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, the main toxic principle of Crotalaria spectabilis, is used to induce experimental pulmonary hypertension in laboratory animals.[4][5] Larvae of the Ornate moth feed on the plant and re-purpose the poisonous compound as a defense, excreting it when they are threatened by potential predation.

List of species[edit]

Crotalaria comprises the following species: [6][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boatwright JS, le Roux MM, Wink M, Morozova T, Van Wyk B-E. (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships of tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae) inferred from DNA sequences and morphology". Syst Bot 33 (4): 752–761. doi:10.1600/036364408786500271. JSTOR 40211942. 
  2. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  3. ^ Eisner T. (2003). For the Love of Insects. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01827-3. 
  4. ^ Werchan PM, Summer WR, Gerdes AM, McDonough KH. (1989). "Right ventricular performance after monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension". Am J Physiol 256 (5, pt. 2): H1328–H1336. PMID 2524170. 
  5. ^ Kosanovic D, Kojonazarov B, Luitel H, Dahal BK, Sydykov A, Cornitescu T, Janssen W, Brandes RP, Davie N, Ghofrani HA, Weissmann N, Grimminger F, Seeger W, Schermuly RT. (2011). "Therapeutic efficacy of TBC3711 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension". Respir Res 12: 87. doi:10.1186/1465-9921-12-87. PMC 3141422. PMID 21699729. 
  6. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Crotalaria". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  7. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Crotalaria". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 
  8. ^ Some sources treat Crotalaria lanata as a synonym of Crotalaria beddomeana.
  9. ^ Some sources treat Crotalaria lunata as a synonym of Crotalaria beddomeana.
  10. ^ Some sources treat Crotalaria mohlenbrockii as a synonym of Crotalaria martiana.
  11. ^ Some sources treat Crotalaria montana as a synonym of Crotalaria incana.
  12. ^ Some sources treat Crotalaria semperflorens as a synonym of Crotalaria verrucosa.
  13. ^ Some sources treat Crotalaria urbaniana as a synonym of Crotalaria ekmanii.
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