The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Heemstra, Phillip C., and John E. Randall. 1993. Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae): An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of the Grouper, Rockcod, Hind, Coral Grouper and Lyretail Species Known to Date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 125, vol. 16. vii + 382
- Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
- Opitz S (1996) Trophic interactions in Caribbean coral reefs. ICLARM Tech Rep 43, Manila, Philippines
- WoRMS (2014). Epinephelinae. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2014) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=151758
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