Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 13598 specimens in 215 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9169 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -9 - 3767
  Temperature range (°C): 2.878 - 29.336
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 39.811
  Salinity (PPS): 6.901 - 40.307
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.321 - 8.187
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.043 - 3.216
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.498 - 81.249

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -9 - 3767

Temperature range (°C): 2.878 - 29.336

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.016 - 39.811

Salinity (PPS): 6.901 - 40.307

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.321 - 8.187

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.043 - 3.216

Silicate (umol/l): 0.498 - 81.249
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:590Public Records:89
Specimens with Sequences:445Public Species:30
Specimens with Barcodes:443Public BINs:36
Species:102         
Species With Barcodes:89         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Syngnathinae

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Wikipedia

Flagtail pipefish

Doryrhamphus and Dunckerocampus, popularly known as flagtail pipefish,[1] are two genera of fishes in the Syngnathidae family. They are found in warm, relatively shallow waters of the Indo-Pacific, with a single species, D. paulus, in the eastern Pacific.[2] Most of these pipefishes are very colourful, and are fairly popular in the marine aquarium hobby despite requiring special care and not being recommended for beginners.[1][3]

Their habit of flashing the distinctly patterned tails during courtship and other displays have earned them their English popular name.[1] Adults are highly territorial and usually live in pairs.[1][3] They feed on tiny crustaceans and other small animals, and most species from the genus Doryrhamphus will sometimes act as cleaners.[3]

Description[edit]

Doryrhamphus have a maximum length of 14 centimetres (5.5 in) or less, with D. janssi being the only species that surpasses 8.5 centimetres (3.3 in).[2][4] Most species have a horizontal blue line along their body, and all have a whitish-edged tail that is marked contrastingly with black, red or yellow.[2][4]

Dunckerocampus are more elongated and have a maximum length between 10 and 20 centimetres (3.9 and 7.9 in), with D. chapmani being the only species with a maximum length below 15 centimetres (5.9 in).[2][4] Their tail is red with a whitish edge, and in some species there is a white or yellow spot in the center.[2][4] All except D. baldwini (and a similar, but possibly undescribed species from the eastern Indian Ocean) have vertical red/brown and yellow/white stripes on their body.[2][4]

Taxonomy[edit]

Considerable taxonomic confusion exists in these genera, both because a number of scientifically undescribed species remain and some of the already described species are variable.[2][5]

The first to recognise the species now placed in Dunckerocampus as worthy of a separate genus was the German ichthyologist George Duncker, and for this reason he coined Acanthognathus in 1912.[6] However, unbeknown to him that name was preoccupied by a genus of ants.[7][8] The replacement name Dunckerocampus honours Duncker.[9]

Following a review in 1985, Dunckerocampus was generally considered a subgenus of Doryrhamphus,[10] but in 1998 it was recommended that Dunckerocampus again should be a genus, and in addition to the species formerly placed in it, it should include the newly described D. boylei.[11] When described in 2004, D. naia was also placed in this genus.[12] Recent authorities generally recognise Doryrhamphus and Dunckerocampus as separate genera.[5][13][14][15]

Species[edit]

Species and genera follow most recent reviews of this group.[5][13][14][15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Weiss, T. (2005). Flagtail Pipefish In The Home Aquarium. Fusedjaw
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kuiter, R. H. (2003). Seahorses, Pipefishes, and their relatives. 2nd edition. TMC Publishing. Chorleywood. ISBN 0-9539097-4-3
  3. ^ a b c Schultz III, H. C. (2003). There's More to Pipes Than Just PVC: The Genus Doryrhamphus and Other Pipefish. Reefkeeping
  4. ^ a b c d e Kuiter R. H., & H. Debelius (2007). World Atlas of Marine Fishes. 2nd edition. IKAN Unterwasserarchiv. ISBN 978-3-925919-77-0.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Kuiter, R. H. (2009). Seahorses and their relatives. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Australia. ISBN 978-0-9775372-1-1
  6. ^ Duncker, G. (1912). Die Gattungen der Syngnathidae. Mitteilungen Naturhist. Museum Hamburg 29: 219-240.
  7. ^ Mayr, G. (1887). Südamerikanische Formiciden. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 37: 511-632.
  8. ^ Ride, W.D.L, H.G. Cogger, C. Dupuis, O. Kraus, A. Minelli, F. C. Thompson & P.K. Tubbs, eds. (1999). International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. ISBN 0-85301-006-4
  9. ^ Whitley, G. P. (1933). Studies in ichthyology. No. 7. Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (1): 60-112, Pls. 11-15.
  10. ^ Dawson, C. E. (1985). Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). Gulf Coast Research Lab., Ocean Springs, Mississippi. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). i-vi + 1-230.
  11. ^ Kuiter, R. H. (1998). Pipefishes of the syngnathid genus Dunckerocampus (Sygnathiformes: Syngnathidae), with a description of a new species from the Indian Ocean. Aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 3(2): 81-84.
  12. ^ Allen, G. R., & R. H. Kuiter. (2004). Dunckerocampus naia, a new species of pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae) from the western Pacific. Aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 9(1): 1-6.
  13. ^ a b c d e Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Doryrhamphus in FishBase. September 2012 version.
  14. ^ a b Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Dunckerocampus in FishBase. September 2012 version.
  15. ^ a b c d e Eschmeyer, W.N., & R. Fricke, eds. (2012). Catalog of Fishes. Online version, 19 September 2012.
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Pipefish

Pipefishes or pipe-fishes (Syngnathinae) are a subfamily of small fishes, which, together with the seahorses, form the family Syngnathidae.

Description[edit]

Pipefishes look like straight-bodied seahorses with tiny mouths. The name is derived from the peculiar form of the snout, which is like a long tube, ending in a narrow and small mouth which opens upwards and is toothless. The body and tail are long, thin, and snake-like. They each have a highly modified skeleton formed into armored plating. This dermal skeleton has several longitudinal ridges, so a vertical section through the body looks angular, not round or oval as in the majority of other fishes.[1]

A dorsal fin is always present, and is the principal (in some species, the only) organ of locomotion. The ventral fins are consistently absent, and the other fins may or may not be developed. The gill openings are extremely small and placed near the upper posterior angle of the gill cover.[1]

Many are very weak swimmers in open water, moving slowly by means of rapid movements of the dorsal fin. Some species of pipefish have prehensile tails, as in seahorses. The majority of pipefishes have some form of a caudal fin (unlike seahorses), which can be used for locomotion.[1] See fish anatomy for fin descriptions. Some species of pipefish have more developed caudal fins, such as the group collectively known as flagtail pipefish, which are quite strong swimmers.[citation needed]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Most pipefishes are marine dwellers; only a few are freshwater species. They are abundant on coasts of the tropical and temperate zones. Most species of pipefish are usually 35–40 cm in length and generally inhabit sheltered areas in coral reefs or seagrass beds.

Reproduction and parental care[edit]

Male pipefish (Syngnathus acus) with subcaudal pouch

Pipefishes, like their seahorse relatives, leave most of the parenting duties to the male, which provides all of the postzygotic care for its offspring, supplying them with nutrients and oxygen through a placenta-like connection. It broods the offspring either on distinct region of its body or in a brood pouch. Brood pouches vary significantly among different species of pipefish, but all contain a small opening through which female eggs can be deposited. The location of the brood pouch can be along the entire underside of the pipefish or just at the base of the tail, as with seahorses.[2] Pipefish in the genus Syngnathus have a brood pouch with a ventral seam that can completely cover all of their eggs when sealed. In males without these pouches, eggs adhere to a strip of soft skin on the ventral surface of their bodies that does not contain any exterior covering.[3]

Courtship between male and female pipefish involves lengthy and complicated shows of display. For example, in Syngnathus typhle, copulation is always preceded by a ritualized dance by both sexes. The dance involves very conspicuous wriggling and shaking motions, especially in comparison to the species' otherwise extremely secretive lifestyle. Under the threat or presence of a predator, pipefish are more reluctant to perform their dances. In addition, when risk of predation is high, they copulate less frequently, dance less per copulation, and females transfer more eggs per copulation. Although S. thyphle males normally prefer to mate with larger females, they mate randomly when potentially threatened by predators.[4]

During pipefish copulation, which signifies the termination of the courtship dance, the female transfers her eggs through a small ovipositor into the male brood pouch or onto the special patch of skin on the male’s ventral body surface. While the eggs are being transferred, the mating pair rises through the water until copulation is complete. At this point, the male assumes an S-shaped posture and fertilizes the eggs, all the while travelling back down the water column.[5] Males possessing brood pouches release their sperm directly into them; the pouches are then vigorously shaken. The ventral seams are not opened until weeks later when the male pipefish give birth.[3]

A physical limit exists for the number of eggs a male pipefish can carry, so males are considered to be the limiting sex. Females can often produce more eggs than males can accommodate inside their brood pouches, resulting in more eggs than can be cared for. Other factors may restrict female reproductive success, including male pregnancy length and energy investment in progeny.[6] Because the pipefish embryos develop within the male, feeding on nutrients supplied by him, male pipefish invest more energy than females in each zygote. Additionally, they invest more energy per unit time than females throughout each breeding season.[7] As a result, some males may consume their embryos rather than continuing to rear them under situations in which their bodies are exhausted of resources, to regain energy. Pregnant male pipefish can absorb nutrients from their broods, in a manner very similar to filial cannibalism found in many other families of fish. The smallest eggs in a brood of various egg sizes usually have lower survival rates than larger ones, due to the larger eggs being competitively superior and more likely to develop into mature adults. In other instances, some pipefishes may consume the embryos of mates that seem less fit or desirable, as each male generally copulates with more than one female.[5]

Young are born free-swimming with relatively little or no yolk sac, and begin feeding immediately. From the time they hatch, they are independent of their parents, which at that time may view them as food. Some fry have short larval stages and live as plankton for a short while. Others are fully developed but miniature versions of their parents, assuming the same behaviors as their parents immediately.

Pair bonding varies wildly between different species of pipefish. While some are monogamous or seasonally monogamous, others are not.

Subcaudal pouch of Syngnathus acus, with the young ready to leave the pouch: One side of the membrane of the pouch is pushed aside to allow a view of its interior.

Many species exhibit polyandry, a breeding system in which one female mates with two or more males. This tends to occur with greater frequency in internal-brooding species of pipefishes than with external-brooding ones. Polyandrous species are also more likely to have females with complex sexual signals such as ornaments.[8]

Genera[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Chisholm, 1911, p. 634.
  2. ^ Wilson AB, Ahnesjö I, Vincent AC, Meyer A (June 2003). "The dynamics of male brooding, mating patterns, and sex roles in pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae)". Evolution 57 (6): 1374–86. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00345.x. PMID 12894945. 
  3. ^ a b A. G. Jones, J. C. Avise (2001). "Mating Systems and Sexual Selection in Male-Pregnant Pipefishes and Seahorses: Insights from Microsatellite -Based Studies of Maternity". The Journal of Heredity. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  4. ^ Anders Berglund (July 1993). "Risky sex: male pipefishes mate at random in the presence of a predator". Animal Behavior. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  5. ^ a b Sagebakken (2012). Parental care and brood reduction in a pipefish. Goteborg. ISBN 978-91-628-8532-8. 
  6. ^ Anders Berglund, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Ingrid Svensson (1989). "Reproductive Success of Females Limited by Males in Two Pipefish Species". The American Naturalist. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  7. ^ Anders Berglund, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Ingrid Svensson (1986-03-26). "Reversed sex roles and parental energy investment in zygotes of two pipefish (Syngnathidae) species". Marine Ecology-Progress Series. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  8. ^ Rosenqvist G, Berglund A (2011). "Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae.". J Fish Biol 78 (6): 1647–61. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.02972.x. PMID 21651521. 
  9. ^ http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=154405 accessed 19 July 2011

References[edit]

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