Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves 3-foliolate. Flowers ± sessile in usually dense heads. Calyx teeth 5. Petals becoming dry and persistent after flowering. Pod small, ± enclosed in the calyx.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Aceria plicator causes gall of flower of Trifolium

Plant / resting place / on
Acyrthosiphon pisum may be found on live Trifolium
Remarks: season: winter

Foodplant / miner
larva of Agromyza nana mines leaf of Trifolium
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion apricans feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion assimile feeds within inflorescence of Trifolium

Foodplant / gall
larva of Apion curtisi causes gall of rootstock of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion difforme feeds on Trifolium
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion fulvipes feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion laevicolle feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion nigritarse feeds within inflorescence of Trifolium

Foodplant / gall
larva of Apion pubescens causes gall of stem of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion ryei feeds on Trifolium
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion schoenherri feeds on Trifolium
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion seniculus feeds within stem of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion trifolii feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion varipes feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion virens feeds within stem of Trifolium

Plant / associate
adult of Bruchidius varius is associated with Trifolium
Remarks: season: (late 7-early 10, late 4)5-6

Plant / associate
adult of Conostethus roseus is associated with Trifolium
Remarks: season: late 5-early 7

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura leguminicola causes gall of calyx of Trifolium

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura trifolii causes gall of leaflet of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera fuscocinerea grazes on leaf of Trifolium

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Hypera meles grazes on leaf of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera nigrirostris grazes on leaf of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Hypera postica grazes on leaf of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Hypera punctata grazes on leaf of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera suspiciosa grazes on leaf of Trifolium
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera venusta grazes on leaf of Trifolium
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, immersed, roundish, bright blackish-brown pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Leptosphaeria pratensis causes spots on live leaf of Trifolium
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus atricillus grazes on leaf of Trifolium
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Mycoplasma causes gall of inflorescence of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Nematus myosotidis grazes on leaf of Trifolium

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche minor parasitises root of Trifolium
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma pinodella feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Piezodorus lituratus sucks sap of unripe pod of Trifolium

Foodplant / spot causer
mostly hypophyllous colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia sphaeroidea causes spots on leaf of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona ambiguus feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona hispidulus feeds on root of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona humeralis feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona lepidus feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
subterranean larva of Sitona lineatus feeds on live root nodule of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona lineellus feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona macularius feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona puncticollis feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona sulcifrons feeds on Trifolium
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Strawberry Green Petal phytoplasma infects and damages proliferating, leaf-like flower of Trifolium

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Subcoccinella vigintiquattuorpunctata grazes on leaf of Trifolium
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Tychius lineatulus feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Tychius picirostris feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / gall
larva of Tychius polylineatus causes gall of bud (terminal or lateral) of Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Tychius pusillus feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Tychius stephensi feeds on Trifolium

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Tychius tibialis feeds on Trifolium

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Foodplant / parasite
haustorium of Cuscuta campestris parasitises stem of Trifolium sp. cult.
Other: major host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:395
Specimens with Sequences:559
Specimens with Barcodes:479
Species:61
Species With Barcodes:60
Public Records:191
Public Species:51
Public BINs:0
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysaspis sp10

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysaspis sp7

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysaspis sp5

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysaspis sp4

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysaspis sp2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysaspis sp1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Clover

"Alsike" and "Trifolium" redirect here. For the Swedish locality, see Alsike, Sweden. For the Canadian locality, see Alsike, Alberta. For the trematode parasite, see Cladocystis trifolium.
For the mobile dating application, see Clover (application).
For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation).

Clover (Trifolium), or trefoil, is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution; the highest diversity is found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but many species also occur in South America and Africa, including at high altitudes on mountains in the tropics. They are small annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herbaceous plants. The leaves are trifoliate (rarely 5- or 7-foliate), with stipules adnate to the leaf-stalk, and heads or dense spikes of small red, purple, white, or yellow flowers; the small, few-seeded pods are enclosed in the calyx. Other closely related genera often called clovers include Melilotus (sweet clover) and Medicago (alfalfa or 'calvary clover'). The "shamrock" of popular iconography is sometimes considered to be young clover. The scientific name derives from the Latin tres, "three", and folium, "leaf", so called from the characteristic form of the leaf, which has three leaflets (trifoliate); hence the popular name trefoil. Clovers are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on clovers.

Cultivation[edit]

Several species are extensively cultivated as fodder plants. The most widely cultivated clovers are white clover Trifolium repens and red clover Trifolium pratense. Clover, either sown alone or in mixture with ryegrass, has for a long time formed a staple crop for soiling, for several reasons: it grows freely, shooting up again after repeated mowings; it produces an abundant crop; it is palatable to and nutritious for livestock; it fixes nitrogen, reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers; it grows in a great range of soils and climates; and it is appropriate for either pasturage or green composting.

In many areas, particularly on acidic soil, clover is short-lived because of a combination of insect pests, diseases and nutrient balance; this is known as "clover sickness". When crop rotations are managed so that clover does not recur at intervals shorter than eight years, it grows with much of its pristine vigor.

Clover sickness in more recent times may also be linked to pollinator decline; clovers are most efficiently pollinated by bumblebees, which have declined as a result of agricultural intensification.[4] Honeybees can also pollinate clover, and beekeepers are often in heavy demand from farmers with clover pastures. Farmers reap the benefits of increased reseeding that occurs with increased bee activity, which means that future clover yields remain abundant. Beekeepers benefit from the clover bloom, as clover is one of the main nectar sources for honeybees.

Photo of clover leaf taken with a microscope at 60x magnification.

T. repens, white or Dutch clover, is a perennial abundant in meadows and good pastures. The flowers are white or pinkish, becoming brown and deflexed as the corolla fades. T. hybridum, alsike or Swedish clover, is a perennial which was introduced early in the 19th century and has now become naturalized in Britain. The flowers are white or rosy, and resemble those of the last species. T. medium, meadow or zigzag clover, a perennial with straggling flexuous stems and rose-purple flowers, is of little or no agricultural value.

Other South African species are: T. arvense, hare's-foot trefoil; found in fields and dry pastures, a soft hairy plant with minute white or pale pink flowers and feathery sepals; T. fragiferum, orange clover, with hot-grounded, globose, rose-purple heads and swollen calyxes; T. procumbens, hop trefoil, on dry pastures and roadsides, the heads of pale yellow flowers suggesting miniature hops; and the somewhat similar T. minus, common in pastures and roadsides, with smaller heads and small yellow flowers turning dark brown.

Symbolism[edit]

Shamrock, the traditional Irish symbol, which according to legend was coined by Saint Patrick for the Holy Trinity, is commonly associated with clover, though sometimes with Oxalis species, which are also trifoliate (i.e., they have three leaves).

Clovers occasionally have leaves with four leaflets, instead of the usual three. These four-leaf clovers, like other rarities, are considered lucky. Clovers can also have five, six, or more leaves, but these are rarer. The record for most leaves is 56, set on 10 May 2009.[5] This beat the 21-leaf clover,[6] a record set in June 2008 by the same man, who had also held the prior Guinness World Record of 18.[7]

A common idiom is "to be (live) in clover", meaning to live a carefree life of ease, comfort, or prosperity. This originally referred to the fact that clover is fattening to cattle.[8]

The cloverleaf interchange is named for the resemblance to the leaves of a (four-leafed) clover when viewed from the air.

Selected species[edit]

The genus Trifolium currently has 245 recognized species:[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Species Nomenclature in GRIN". Retrieved 2010-08-04. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Genus Nomenclature in GRIN". Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  4. ^ Bumbles make beeline for gardens, study suggests Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  5. ^ "Most Leaves on a Clover". Guinness World Records. 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  6. ^ 21-leaf Clover Sets Record. Neatorama. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  7. ^ Clover - Most Leaves. Guinness World Record. Retrieved 7 December 2008. (illustrating a stem with eighteen leaflets discovered in Hanamaki City, Japan, in May 2002)
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "clover", Online Etymology Dictionary, s.v. "clover".
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Chrysaspis (genus)

Chrysaspis is a genus of beetles in the family Buprestidae, containing the following species:[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bellamy, C. L. (2010). "Genus Chrysaspis". A Checklist of World Buprestoidea. Retrieved 21 Jun 2011. 
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Notes

Trifolium, like Medicago, is a genus of clovers that are commonly cultivated as forage plants or for the improvement of soil fertility.

  • Bennett, B.C. 2007. Chapter 3. Twenty-five Important Plant Families. B.C. Bennett, editor. UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. http://eolss.net.
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