Two evolutionary grades are found in this family; micropredators (predators of very small organisms) and herbivores have a nonprotractile upper jaw and a deep to shallow body, while carnivores have a movable upper jaw and an elongated body. The fish vary greatly in size among species, with the micropredators being less than 8 cm (3.1 in) in length, and the largest carnivores can reach up to 83 cm (33 in).
- Genus Belonophago (two species)
- Genus Congocharax (two species)
- Genus Distichodus (23 species)
- Genus Dundocharax (one species)
- Genus Eugnathichthys (three species)
- Genus Hemigrammocharax (10 species)
- Genus Hemistichodus (three species)
- Genus Ichthyborus (four species)
- Genus Mesoborus (one species)
- Genus Microstomatichthyoborus (two species)
- Genus Nannaethiops (two species)
- Genus Nannocharax (28 species)
- Genus Neolebias (11 species)
- Genus Paradistichodus (one species)
- Genus Paraphago (one species)
- Genus Phago (three species)
- Genus Xenocharax (one species)
- Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
- Weitzman, S.H. & Vari, R.P. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 101. ISBN 0-12-547665-5.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). "Distichodontidae" in FishBase. October 2011 version.
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