Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Actinocladium anamorph of Actinocladium rhodosporum is saprobic on rotten wood of Ulex

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Apion atratulum feeds on Ulex

Foodplant / gall
larva of Apion scutellare causes gall of stem of Ulex

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion ulicis feeds within pod of Ulex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Bisporella sulfurina is saprobic on fallen branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-2

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acladium anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum is saprobic on dead bark of Ulex

Foodplant / feeds on
adult (young) of Bruchidius villosus feeds on pollen of Ulex

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Calomicrus circumfusus grazes on leaf of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Camposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Camposporium pellucidum is saprobic on bark of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Chaetosphaeria myriocarpa is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria pulviscula is saprobic on dead, often rotten wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Claussenomyces atrovirens is saprobic on damp, rotting wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: mostly 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Coniochaeta ligniaria is saprobic on dead, sometimes burnt wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immerse perithecium of Coniochaeta velutina is saprobic on fallen, dead Ulex

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus cesatii is saprobic on decayed, dead twig of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
clustered or linear, subiculate pseudothecium of Cucurbitaria elongata is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex

Foodplant / gall
Cuscuta epithymum causes gall of Ulex
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of ascoma of Daldinia caldariorum is saprobic on stem of Ulex

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura ulicis causes gall of bud of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplographium dematiaceous anamorph of Dematioscypha dematiicola is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, subepidermal pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe inaequalis is saprobic on dead spine of Ulex
Remarks: season: 12-7

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Diaporthe rudis is saprobic on wood of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
widely effused stroma of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia ulicis is saprobic on rotting spine of Ulex
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immersed apothecium of Durella atrocyanea is saprobic on mainly decorticate branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 12-2

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella ellisii is saprobic on dead wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
just immersed apothecium of Habrostictis rubra is saprobic on dead branch (in bark cracks) of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-8
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium velutinum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyaloscypha leuconica is saprobic on dead wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hylastinus obscurus feeds within cambium of Ulex

Foodplant / open feeder
Hypera venusta grazes on leaf of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
stroma of Hypoxylon subticinense is saprobic on dead wood of Ulex
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Hysterium angustatum is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
long slender stalked apothecium of Lachnum pygmaeum is saprobic on dead, esp. burnt and partly buried in soil or matted grass root of Ulex
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed or semi-immersed pseudothecium of Lophiostoma angustilabrum is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 3-10
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Melanomma fuscidulum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, often in very large clusters pseudothecium of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate branch wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Gonytrichum dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella inaequalis is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Menispora ciliata is saprobic on dead wood of Ulex

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Conothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Microsphaeropsis olivacea feeds on Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Microthyrium microscopicum is saprobic on dead, fallen, rotting debris of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Mirandina dematiaceous anamorph of Mirandina arnaudii is saprobic on rotten wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 10-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia cinerea is saprobic on dead wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia ligni is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria mammoidea var. mammoidea is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Nectria pseudopeziza is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
Myrothecium dematiaceous anamorph of Nectria ralfsii is saprobic on dead, cut or fallen branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Nemania serpens is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Odontothrips ignobilis may be found on live Ulex
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia luteorubella is saprobic on rotten wood of Ulex
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia xanthostigma is saprobic on bark of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / parasite
underground tuber of Orobanche rapum-genistae parasitises root of Ulex
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Oulema obscura may be found on Ulex
Remarks: season: 7-

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Phaeangella ulicis is saprobic on dead, fallen twig (small) of Ulex
Remarks: season: 2

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Phaeangella ventosa is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phaeotrichosphaeria dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeotrichosphaeria britannica is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Phloeophthorus rhododactylus feeds within stem of Ulex

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Piezodorus lituratus sucks sap of unripe pod of Ulex

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus confluens feeds on Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Proliferodiscus pulveraceus is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 6-9

Fungus / saprobe
erumpent conidioma of Pseudopatellina coelomycetous anamorph of Pseudopatellina conigena is saprobic on dead Ulex

Plant / resting place / on
larva of Sericothrips staphylinus may be found on live Ulex
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona regensteinensis feeds on Ulex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Sitona striatellus feeds on Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium cookei is saprobic on wood or bark of Ulex
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria basitricha is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Stylodothis puccinioides is saprobic on dead branch of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
extensively subiculate apothecium of Tapesia fusca is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Trichosphaerella decipiens is saprobic on dead, burnt, fallen branch of Ulex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained twig of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Uromyces pisi-sativi parasitises live Ulex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in groups of about 10 perithecium of Valsa ceratosperma is saprobic on branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 11-3

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, sessile apothecium of Velutarina rufo-olivacea is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Ulex
Remarks: season: 1-12 (good condition: 8)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:18Public Records:13
Specimens with Sequences:15Public Species:4
Specimens with Barcodes:15Public BINs:0
Species:4         
Species With Barcodes:4         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Ulex

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Wikipedia

Ulex

Ulex (gorse, furze or whin) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. The genus comprises about 20 species of thorny evergreen shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. The species are native to parts of western Europe and northwest Africa, with the majority of species in Iberia.

Gorse is closely related to the brooms, and like them, has green stems and very small leaves and is adapted to dry growing conditions. However it differs in its extreme thorniness, the shoots being modified into branched thorns 1–4 centimetres (0.39–1.57 in) long, which almost wholly replace the leaves as the plant's functioning photosynthetic organs. The leaves of young plants are trifoliate, but in mature plants they are reduced to scales or small spines.[2] All the species have yellow flowers, generally showy, some with a very long flowering season.

Species[edit]

The most widely familiar species is common gorse (Ulex europaeus), the only species native to much of western Europe, where it grows in sunny sites, usually on dry, sandy soils. It is also the largest species, reaching 2–3 metres (7–10 ft) in height; this compares with typically 20–40 centimetres (7.9–15.7 in) for Western Gorse (Ulex gallii). This latter species is characteristic of highly exposed Atlantic coastal heathland and montane habitats. In the eastern part of Great Britain, dwarf furze (Ulex minor) replaces western gorse. Ulex minor grows only about 30 centimetres (12 in) tall, a habit characteristic of sandy lowland heathland.

In full flower at Dalgarven Mill in Scotland.

Common gorse flowers a little in late autumn and through the winter, coming into flower most strongly in spring. Western Gorse and Dwarf Furze flower in late summer (August-September in Ireland and Great Britain|Britain). Between the different species, some gorse is almost always in flower, hence the old country phrase: "When gorse is out of blossom, kissing's out of fashion". Gorse flowers have a distinctive coconut scent, experienced very strongly by some individuals, but weakly by others.[3][4]

Species List[edit]

Ulex comprises the following species:[5][6][7]

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status[edit]

The status of the following species is unresolved:[7]

  • Ulex airensis Esp.Santo et al.
  • Ulex autumnalis Thore
  • Ulex baicheri Rouy
  • Ulex boivini Cosson ex Nyman
  • Ulex boivini Webb
  • Ulex bonnieri Hy
  • Ulex bovini Welw. ex Webb
  • Ulex bovini Willk.
  • Ulex ceballosi Pau
  • Ulex ceballosii (Vicioso) Pau
  • Ulex congestus Pau
  • Ulex ericetarum Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Ulex ericetorum Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Ulex eriophorus Gand.
  • Ulex flahaulti Hy
  • Ulex funkii Webb
  • Ulex grandiflorus Pourr.
  • Ulex hispanicus auct.
  • Ulex hispanicus Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Ulex ianthocladus Webb
  • Ulex intermedius Le Gall
  • Ulex lagrezii Rouy
  • Ulex lanuginosus Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
  • Ulex latebracteatus (Mariz) Rivas Mart., T.E.Díaz & Fern.Prieto
  • Ulex lucidus Willk.
  • Ulex mauritii Sennen
  • Ulex mauritii Sennen & Mauricio
  • Ulex maximilianii Sennen & Mauricio
  • Ulex megalorites Willk.
  • Ulex microclada Sennen
  • Ulex microclada Sennen & Mauricio
  • Ulex mitis G.Don
  • Ulex narcissi Sennen
  • Ulex provincialis Le Gall
  • Ulex provinicialis Loisel.
  • Ulex revurvatus Willk.
  • Ulex richteri Rouy
  • Ulex rivasgodayanus (Cubas) Cabezudo & Pérez Lat.
  • Ulex salzmannii Willk.
  • Ulex sparsiflorus Lange
  • Ulex spicatus Gand.
  • Ulex subsericeus (Cout.) Rivas Mart., T.E.Díaz & Fern.Gonz.
  • Ulex tazensis (Braun-Blanq. & Maire) Pau & Font Quer
  • Ulex vicentinus (Daveau) Castro
  • Ulex vidali Pau
  • Ulex vidalii Pau
  • Ulex willkommii Webb

Hybrids[edit]

The following hybrids have been described:[7]

Ecology[edit]

Gorse may grow as a fire-climax plant, well adapted to encourage and withstand fires, being highly flammable,[8] and having seed pods that are to a large extent opened by fire, thus allowing rapid regeneration after fire. The burnt stumps also readily sprout new growth from the roots. Where fire is excluded, gorse soon tends to be shaded out by taller-growing trees, unless other factors like exposure also apply. Typical fire recurrence periods in gorse stands are 5–20 years.

Gorse thrives in poor growing areas and conditions including drought;[9] it is sometimes found on very rocky soils,[10] where many species cannot thrive. Moreover, it is widely used for land reclamation (e.g., mine tailings), where its nitrogen-fixing capacity helps other plants establish better.

Gorse is a valuable plant for wildlife, providing dense thorny cover ideal for protecting bird nests. In Britain, France and Ireland, it is particularly noted for supporting Dartford Warblers (Sylvia undata) and European Stonechats (Saxicola rubicola); the common name of the Whinchat (Saxicola rubetra) attests to its close association with gorse. The flowers are sometimes eaten by the caterpillars of the Double-striped Pug moth (Gymnoscelis rufifasciata), while those of the case-bearer moth Coleophora albicosta feed exclusively on gorse. The dry wood of dead gorse stems provides food for the caterpillars of the concealer moth Batia lambdella.

Invasive Species[edit]

In many areas of North America (notably California and Oregon), southern South America, Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii, the common gorse, introduced as an ornamental plant or hedge, has become an invasive species due to its aggressive seed dispersal; it has proved very difficult to eradicate and detrimental in native habitats. Common gorse is also an invasive species in the montane grasslands of Horton Plains National Park in Sri Lanka.[11]

Controlled burning of gorse in Devon, England

Management[edit]

Gorse readily becomes dominant in suitable conditions, and where this is undesirable for agricultural or ecological reasons control is required, either to remove gorse completely, or to limit its extent. Gorse stands are often managed by regular burning or flailing, allowing them to regrow from stumps or seed. Denser areas of gorse may be bulldozed.

A whin-stone at Dalgarven Mill, Scotland, used to crush Whin for use as winter feed for cattle.

Uses[edit]

Foods[edit]

Gorse flowers are edible and can be used in salads, tea and to make a non-grape-based fruit wine.

As fodder, gorse is high in protein[citation needed] and may be used as feed for livestock, particularly in winter when other greenstuff is not available. Traditionally it was used as fodder for cattle, being made palatable either by "bruising" (crushing) with hand-held mallets, or grinding to a moss-like consistency with hand- or water-driven mills, or being finely chopped and mixed with straw chaff.[citation needed] Gorse is also eaten as forage by some livestock, such as feral ponies, which may eat little else in winter. Ponies may also eat the thinner stems of burnt gorse.

Fuel[edit]

Gorse bushes are highly flammable, and in many areas bundles of gorse were used to fire traditional bread ovens.[12]

Wood[edit]

Gorse wood has been used to make small objects; being non-toxic, it is especially suited for cutlery. In spite of its durability it is not used for construction because the plant is too small and the wood is unstable, being prone to warping. Gorse is useful for garden ornaments because it is resistant to weather and rot.

Common Gorse flowers

Alternative medicine[edit]

Gorse has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[13] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".[14]

Gorse-based symbols[edit]

The furze is the badge of the Sinclair and MacLennan clans of Scotland. Compare this with the broom (Planta genista) as the emblem and basis of the name of the Plantagenet kings of England.

The flower, known as chorima in the Galician language, is considered the national flower of Galicia in NW Spain.

Gorse in popular culture[edit]

In Thomas Hardy's novel The Return of the Native, when Clym is partially blinded through excessive reading, he becomes a furze-cutter on Egdon Heath, to the dismay of his wife, Eustacia. In the book, the timeless, gorse-covered heath is described in each season of the novel's year-and-a-day timeline and becomes symbolic of the greater nature of mankind.

Its flammability rendered gorse symbolic as quickly flammable and quickly burning out; for example, Doyle, in his book "Sir Nigel" has Sir John Chandos say: "...They flare up like a furzebush in the flames, but if for a short space you may abide the heat of it, then there is a chance that it may be cooler... If the Welsh be like the furze fire, then, pardieu! the Scotch are the peat, for they will smolder and you will never come to the end of them."[15]

Winnie-the-Pooh fell into a gorse bush while trying to get honey in the first chapter of the book of the same name.[16]

In The second book of Tolkien's "Lord of the rings" trilogy, "The Two Towers", Frodo and Sam led by Gollum walked underneath very old and tall thickets of gorse on their way to pass by Minas Morgul. [17]

In "Red Doc>", Anne Carson's 2013 sequel to her 1998 novel-in-verse entitled "Autobiography of Red", the protagonist, G, owns a herd of musk oxen who like to feed on gorse; one ox in particular, Io, eats gorse flowers and hallucinates that she can fly.

In The Lives of Christopher Chant Diana Wynne Jones has her eponymous character taking a walk with his tutor through a gorse thicket on a rainy day.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  2. ^ A R Clapham, T G Tutin, E F Warburg, Flora of the British Isles, Cambridge, 1962, p 331
  3. ^ "Gorse". Plantlife International. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  4. ^ Moore, Charles (28 September 2009). "Richard Mabey, a writer dropping down to see the natural world". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  5. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Ulex". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  6. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Ulex". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c "The Plant List entry for Ulex". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Pausas et al. (2011) Fires enhance flammability in Ulex parviflorus. New Phytologist
  9. ^ Plants for a Future, database entry for Ulex europaeus
  10. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Catto Long Barrow fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian
  11. ^ Lalith Gunasekera, Invasive Plants: A guide to the identification of the most invasive plants of Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009, p. 88–89.
  12. ^ "Experimental Archaeology Site at Tunstall". Suffolk County Council. "We have tried different woods as fuel to see which is most efficient and our favourite is dead gorse, collected locally and a dominant species on the sandy soils in this area. Analysis of woods used in the Roman salt industry that took place on the estuary a mile away shows they were using the same fuel." 
  13. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  14. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
  15. ^ Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan; Sir Nigel; Pub:Smith, Elder & Co. London, 1906
  16. ^ Milne, A.A. Winnie the Pooh, Chapter 1.
  17. ^ J.R.R. Tolkien, The Two Towers, Chapter VII; Pub: Houghton Mifflin Company Boston / New York 1954...1982
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