Overview

Comprehensive Description

[[ Subfamily Loricariinae ]]

Members of the subfamily Loricariinae are characterized by a long and depressed caudal peduncle and by the absence of an adipose fin. They also show dramatic variation in body shape, lip morphology and dentition. The sexual dimorphism is often pronounced and is expressed through the hypertrophy of odontodes on the pectoral-fin rays, on the snout margin, and sometimes on the predorsal area of mature males. Certain genera also show sexual differences in lip and tooth structures.

Isbrücker (1979) listed twenty-seven genera of Loricariinae , described eight as new, and classified them into four tribes and eight subtribes on the basis of morphology, without phylogenetic inferences. These include the Loricariini , including six subtribes ( Loricariina , Planiloricariina , Reganellina , Rineloricariina , Loricariichthyina and Hemiodontichthyina ), the Harttiini , including two subtribes ( Harttiina and Metaloricariina ), the Farlowellini , and the Acestridiini . The same author (1981a: p. VI, 71) voiced doubts concerning the placement of Acestridiini among Loricariinae , noting that: “The exposed cleithrum and coracoid, together with the peculiar odontodes on the unbranched pelvic fin ray (‘spine‘) are characters otherwise occurring typically only in various members of the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae .”; nevertheless, he maintained them as members of Loricariinae . In the same work he also described two new subtribes, Ricolina and Pseudoloricariina , developed the main characteristics of each rank: subfamily, tribe, subtribe, and genera, and provided a provisional key to the genera of Loricariidae . Rapp Py-Daniel (1981) described a new genus, Furcodontichthys ZBK , and placed it in the Loricariini , subtribe Loricariina . Martín Salazar et al. (1982) described Dentectus ZBK as a representative of the tribe Loricariini , subtribe Planiloricariina . In this paper, he completed the diagnosis of Planiloricariina , in which he transferred the genera Rhadinoloricaria ZBK , Crossoloricaria ZBK , and Pseudohemiodon ZBK . Isbrücker et al. (1983) described Aposturisoma ZBK as a representative of the Farlowellini . Isbrücker & Nijssen (1984, 1986a) described Pyxiloricaria ZBK and Apistoloricaria ZBK , respectively, and placed them in the Loricariini , subtribe Planiloricariina . Using phylogenetic methods, Schaefer (1986, 1987) established the monophyly of the Loricariinae on the basis of morphological data. Finally, Nijssen & Isbrücker (1987) suggested, refering to a Ferraris personal communication, that the Acestridiini were representatives of the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae . Schaefer (1991) confirmed this status and diagnosed the tribe Hypoptopomatini including, among others, the Acestridiini . Rapp Py-Daniel (1997) proposed a phylogeny of the Loricariinae based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. She confirmed the monophyly of the subfamily, and of two of the three remaining tribes sensu Isbrücker (1979), Harttiini and Loricariini ; members of Farlowellini were placed within Harttiini . Montoya-Burgos et al. (1998) proposed the first molecular phylogeny of the familyLoricariidae with emphasis on the subfamily Hypostominae . Although, their analysis included only nine representatives of the subfamily Loricariinae , they partially confirmed their subdivision into two main groups, with Farlowella ZBK , a representative of the Farlowellini , being the sister genus of Sturisoma , a representative of the Harttiini , and Harttia ZBK located at the base of the subfamily. Outside of Harttia ZBK , the two main groups supported were Farlowella ZBK and Sturisoma sister group of the remaining six genera corresponding to Loricariini . Isbrücker and Isbrücker & Michels (in Isbrücker et al. 2001) described four new genera: Fonchiiichthys ZBK , Leliella ZBK , Quiritixys ZBK and Proloricaria ZBK , and revalidated the genus Hemiloricaria Bleeker, 1862 ZBK on the basis of a very restricted number of characters of questionable validity because they focus mainly on sexual dimorphism. Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira (2001) put Cteniloricaria ZBK in the synonymy of Harttia ZBK . Ferraris (2003) maintained the validity of Cteniloricaria ZBK , put in synonymy all the genera described by Isbrücker and Isbrücker & Michels (in Isbrücker et al. 2001) and listed 197 species of Loricariinae distributed in 31 genera: Apistoloricaria ZBK (4 species), Aposturisoma ZBK (1 species), Brochiloricaria ZBK (2 species), Crossoloricaria ZBK (5 species), Cteniloricaria ZBK (3 species), Dasyloricaria ZBK (5 species), Dentectus ZBK (1 species), Farlowella ZBK (25 species), Furcodontichthys ZBK (1 species), Harttia ZBK (18 species), Harttiella ZBK (1 species), Hemiodontichthys ZBK (1 species), Ixinandria ZBK (2 species), Lamontichthys ZBK (4 species), Limatulichthys ZBK (1 species), Loricaria ZBK (11 species), Loricariichthys ZBK (17 species), Metaloricaria ZBK (2 species), Paraloricaria ZBK (3 species), Planiloricaria ZBK (1 species), Pseudohemiodon ZBK (7 species), Pseudoloricaria ZBK (1 species), Pterosturisoma ZBK (1 species), Pyxiloricaria ZBK (1 species), Reganella ZBK (1 species), Rhadinoloricaria ZBK (1 species), Ricola ZBK (1 species), Rineloricaria ZBK (47 species), Spatuloricaria ZBK (11 species), Sturisoma (14 species), and Sturisomatichthys ZBK (4 species). Among all these genera, 13 are monotypic and very few of the most speciose have been revised. Loricaria ZBK was revised by Isbrücker (1981b), Metaloricaria ZBK by Isbrücker & Nijssen (1982), Apistoloricaria ZBK by Nijssen & Isbrücker (1988), and Farlowella ZBK by Retzer & Page (1997).

In light of all these works, which are sometimes contradictory, a taxonomic synthesis of Loricariinae is needed to provide a foundation for more detailed studies of its members. Furthermore, despite the large number of studies conducted on this group, a complete key to the genera of the subfamily Loricariinae is presently unavailable; partial keys are available in Isbrücker & Nijssen (1974a; 1986b), Isbrücker (1981b), Rapp PyDaniel(1981), and Burgess (1989). To rectify this situation, a key to all the genera of the subfamily is proposed herein on the basis of external morphological data, and a synopsis is given for each genus. Multivariate and hierarchical analyses were conducted to classify and organize the information used to construct the key. Our study follows the classification of Ferraris (2003), except for maintaining Cteniloricaria ZBK in synonymy with Harttia ZBK (Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001). As a result, we recognize herein 30 genera of Loricariinae .

  • Raphael Covain, Sonia Fisch-Muller (2007): The genera of the Neotropical armored catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): a practical key and synopsis. Zootaxa 1462, 1-40: 2-3, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D1F13841-BD7B-4D00-B57D-9CBEC187B83C
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[[ Subfamily Loricariinae ]]

Results

Morphological data used in the analyses are given in Table 1. The Hill & Smith analysis revealed structuring of the data on the two first axes (Fig. 1c) that explained 52% of the total inertia of the scatter. The projection of the individuals onto the two first factorial axes (Fig. 1a) showed a partition of the 30 genera into two groups along the first axis. These two groups corresponded to the two tribes, Loricariini and Harttiini , the former comprising Planiloricaria ZBK , Dentectus ZBK , Crossoloricaria ZBK , Apistoloricaria ZBK , Rhadinoloricaria ZBK , Pseudohemiodon ZBK , Pyxiloricaria ZBK , Spatuloricaria ZBK , Paraloricaria ZBK , Ricola ZBK , Brochiloricaria ZBK , Reganella ZBK , Loricaria ZBK , Dasyloricaria ZBK , Rineloricaria ZBK , Pseudoloricaria ZBK , Limatulichthys ZBK , Furcodontichthys ZBK , Loricariichthys ZBK , and Hemiodontichthys ZBK , and the latter comprising Harttia ZBK , Harttiella ZBK , Lamontichthys ZBK , Pterosturisoma ZBK , Sturisomatichthys ZBK , Aposturisoma ZBK , and Sturisoma . Metaloricaria ZBK and Ixinandria ZBK appeared intermediate between these two groups. The second axis organized the genera at an infra-tribal level according to their morphological resemblance. For example, Planiloricaria ZBK , Dentectus ZBK , Crossoloricaria ZBK , Apistoloricaria ZBK , Rhadinoloricaria ZBK , Pseudohemiodon ZBK , and Pyxiloricaria ZBK appeared morphologically more closely related to each other than to Pseudoloricaria ZBK , Limatulichthys ZBK , Furcodontichthys ZBK , Loricariichthys ZBK , and Hemiodontichthys ZBK . The projection onto the first factorial plane of the variables (Fig. 1b) defined the primary morphological tendencies of each tribe along the first axis. The Harttiini were characterized by numerous and pedunculated teeth, a caudal fin with more branched rays, the absence of postorbital notches and predorsal keels, a rounded mouth, papillose lips weakly or not fringed, and short maxillary barbels. The Loricariini were characterized by a more important variation in lips and teeth shape, the frequent presence of postorbital notches and predorsal keels, longer maxillary barbels, and less numerous teeth and branched rays in the caudal fin. The second axis defined morphological groups in each tribe mainly on the basis of dentition and lip structure. Among the Loricariini , Planiloricaria ZBK , Dentectus ZBK , Crossoloricaria ZBK , Apistoloricaria ZBK , Rhadinoloricaria ZBK , Pseudohemiodon ZBK , and Pyxiloricaria ZBK shared filamentous lips, a trapezoidal mouth opening, and teeth often spoon-shaped and smaller. Pseudoloricaria ZBK , Limatulichthys ZBK , Furcodontichthys ZBK , Loricariichthys ZBK , and Hemiodontichthys ZBK shared bilobate lips and bicuspid teeth often reduced in size. Among the Harttiini , Metaloricaria ZBK showed a horse-shoe like mouth shape and smaller pedunculated teeth. Other genera were difficult to characterize and another approach was clearly necessary. A cluster analysis (Fig. 2) grouped genera based on their degree of morphological resemblance. Metaloricaria ZBK and Farlowella ZBK were the most divergent genera and formed the base of the tree. Two groups were then partitioned that corresponded to the two tribes, Harttiini and Loricariini . The Harttiini was comprised of Aposturisoma ZBK , the most morphologically divergent, followed by Lamontichthys ZBK , and then Ixinandria ZBK . This tribe was then divided into two other groups, one formed by Harttia ZBK and Harttiella ZBK , and another by Sturisoma joined with Pterosturisoma ZBK and Sturisomatichthys ZBK . The Loricariini divided into two principal groups. The Loricariichthys ZBK group was formed by Furcodontichthys ZBK , Loricariichthys ZBK , Hemiodontichthys ZBK , Pseudoloricaria ZBK , and Limatulichthys ZBK . The second group was subdivided into three groups: the Pseudohemiodon ZBK group consisting of Reganella ZBK , Pseudohemiodon ZBK , Pyxiloricaria ZBK , Planiloricaria ZBK , Dentectus ZBK , Rhadinoloricaria ZBK , Crossoloricaria ZBK , and Apistoloricaria ZBK ; the Rineloricaria ZBK group formed by Spatuloricaria ZBK , Rineloricaria ZBK , and Dasyloricaria ZBK ; and the Loricaria ZBK group formed by Loricaria ZBK , Paraloricaria ZBK , Ricola ZBK , and Brochiloricaria ZBK . Our analyses resulted in the placement of two taxa that was inconsistent with previous classifications: Ixinandria ZBK appeared among Harttiini although its dentition and presence of postorbital notches align it with Loricariini ; and Spatuloricaria ZBK appeared at the base of the Rineloricaria ZBK and Loricaria ZBK groups. Because these genera share similar lip structures, we followed Isbrücker (1979) by assigning them to the Rineloricaria ZBK group of the Loricariini . Metaloricaria ZBK and Farlowella ZBK , located at the base of the tree because of their particular morphology, were assigned to the tribe Harttiini , following Isbrücker (1979) and Rapp Py-Daniel (1997). To extract the main characteristics of each genus, shared as well as unique, new Hill & Smith analyses were performed on the above named groups. The projection of the individuals and qualitative variables onto the first factorial plane (Fig. 1c) summarized all this information by connecting the individuals to the center of gravity of the different modalities of the different variables possessed. For example, Metaloricaria ZBK (species 17) possesses a complete abdominal cover (A3) without particular organization (B2), neither postorbital notches nor predorsal keels (C1, D1), papillose lips (E1), no fringed barbels (F1), a horse-shoe like mouth shape (G2, unique character), teeth pedunculated and reduced in size (H3, unique character), short maxillary barbels (I2), no rostrum (J2), and a pointed snout (K2). Some variables with modalities close to the axes and to the center appear weakly informative on the first plane, such as the presence or absence of secondary organization in the abdominal cover (B) or the presence or absence of a rostrum (J).

FIGURE 1. Hill & Smith analysis (1976) of the subfamily Loricariinae . a: projection of 30 individuals representing the 30 genera numbered as in Table 1 onto the first factorial plane of the Hill & Smith analysis (axis 1 horizontal and axis 2 vertical); b: projection of the 17 variables onto the first factorial plane of the Hill & Smith analysis (title and modalities in Table 1); c: projection of the individuals and of the qualitative variables onto the first factorial plane of the Hill & Smith analysis, one plane representing one qualitative variable (title and modalities in Table 1); d: eigenvalues.

TABLE 1. Main morphological data recorded on the selected specimen for each genus of the subfamily Loricariinae . A star (*) indicates data taken from the literature. I to VI: Quantitative data. I: number of caudal-fin rays (including spines); II: number of pectoral-fin rays (including spine); III: number of pelvic-fin rays (including spine); IV: number of dorsalfin rays (including spine); V number of premaxillary teeth; VI: number of dentary teeth. A to K: qualitative data. A: abdominal cover with three modalities: 1 = absent, 2 = present incomplete, 3 = present complete; B: secondary organization in the abdominal cover with two modalities: 1 = absent, 2 = present; C: postorbital notches with three modalities: 1 = absent, 2 = present weak, 3 = present deep; D: predorsal keels with two modalities: 1 = absent, 2 = present; E: lips structure with three modalities: 1 = papillose, 2 = filamentous, 3 = rather smooth; F: fringed barbels with two modalities: 1 = absent, 2 = present; G: mouth shape with four modalities: 1 = elliptical, 2 = horse shoe like, 3 = bilobate, 4 = bilobate with trapezoidal opening; H: tooth shape with five modalities: 1 = pedunculated, 2 = straight bicuspid, 3 = pedunculated size reduced, 4 = straight bicuspid size reduced, 5 = spoon shaped size reduced; I: maxillary barbels with two modalities: 1 = conspicuous, 2 = inconspicuous; J: rostrum with two modalities: 1 = absent, 2 = present; K: snout shape with two modalities: 1 = rounded, 2 = pointed.

Genus Species I II III IV V VI A B C D E F G H I J K
Apistoloricaria ZBK A. condei ZBK * [1] 12 7 6 7 4 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 1 1 2
Aposturisoma ZBK A. myriodon ZBK [2] 13 7 6 6 85 85 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
Brochiloricaria ZBK B. macrodon [3] 12 7 6 7 5 6 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2
Crossoloricaria ZBK C. rhami ZBK [4] 12 7 6 7 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 1 1 2
Dasyloricaria ZBK D. cf. filamentosa [5] 12 7 6 7 13 13 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 2
Dentectus ZBK D. barbarmatus ZBK * [6] 12 7 6 7 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 1 1 1
Farlowella ZBK F. platoryncha [7] 13 7 5 6 23 17 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
Furcodontichthys ZBK F. novaesi ZBK * [8] 12 7 6 7 10 6 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 2
Harttia ZBK H. guianensis ZBK [9] 14 7 6 7 85 68 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Harttiella ZBK H. crassicauda [10] 14 7 6 7 33 31 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Hemiodontichthys ZBK H. acipenserinus [11] 12 7 6 7 0 8 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 4 2 2 2
Ixinandria ZBK I. montebelloi [12] 12 7 6 7 10 8 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1
Lamontichthys ZBK L. filamentosus [13] 14 8 6 7 38 36 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Limatulichthys ZBK L. griseus [14] 12 7 6 7 7 10 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 4 2 1 2
Loricaria ZBK L. sp. [15] 12 7 6 7 3 6 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2
Loricariichthys ZBK L. platymetopon ZBK [16] 12 7 6 7 8 15 3 2 3 1 3 1 3 4 2 1 2
Metaloricaria ZBK M. paucidens ZBK [17] 13 7 6 7 11 13 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 2
Paraloricaria ZBK P. agastor ZBK [18] 12 7 6 7 4 7 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2
Planiloricaria ZBK P. cryptodon ZBK [19] 12 7 6 7 0 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 1 1 1
Pseudohemiodon ZBK P. laticeps [20] 12 7 6 7 5 7 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 1 2 2
Pseudoloricaria ZBK P. laeviuscula [21] 12 7 6 7 10 12 3 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 1 2
Pterosturisoma ZBK P. microps [22] 14 7 6 7 46* 46* 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
Pyxiloricaria ZBK P. menezesi ZBK * [23] 12 7 6 7 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 2 1 2
Reganella ZBK R. depressa [24] 12 7 6 7 0 15 3 1 2 1 3 2 4 5 2 2 2
Rhadinoloricaria ZBK R. macromystax [25] 12 7 6 7 4 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 1 2 2
Ricola ZBK R. macrops [26] 12 7 6 7 10 10 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 2
Rineloricaria ZBK R. steindachneri [27] 12 7 6 7 7 9 3 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 2
Spatuloricaria ZBK S. sp. [28] 12 7 6 7 3 4 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2
Sturisoma S. robustum [29] 14 7 6 7 45 38 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
Sturisomatichthys ZBK S. citurensis [30] 14 7 6 7 56 46 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2

FIGURE 2. Cluster analysis of the subfamily Loricariinae . Dendrogram based on morphological distances matrix using UPGMA. A: Harttiini tribe; B: Loricariini tribe. Colors represent the different ranks established:: Harttiini tribe;: Loricariini tribe;: Loricariichthys ZBK group;: Rineloricaria ZBK group;: Loricaria ZBK group;: Pseudohemiodon ZBK group. Braces indicate the genera confirmed inside their own group.

Key to the genera

The methodology used in this study enabled us to sort the valuable information (grouping of individuals according to combinations of variables) into a hierarchy and create morphologically coherent groups by summarizing the characteristics of each genus. These results are intended to rectify problems with the identification of taxa and should not be interpreted as a phylogeny. We do not use the subtribal rank defined by Isbrücker (1979, 1981a) because the divisions are not well-defined. The results of our analyses support the recognition of two tribes, Harttiini and Loricariini , the latter of which contains four morphological groups. Characters that are underlined in the key couplets are also illustrated on the same page and identified by letters between brackets [a, b, c... aq, ar]. These letters are presented in alphabetical order in the couplets and in the illustrations, with two exceptions: character [ab] (first proposed in lead 13a, is illustrated in Figure 20b), and character [af] (first proposed in lead 15b, is illustrated in Figure 23a). Arrows indicate the most important characters for identification purposes. The numbers of the figures correspond to the numbers of the key couplet. Additional features are given at the level of identification to confirm this identification, certain specimens being sometimes poorly preserved or poorly characterized like juveniles, and certain genera being relatively variable.

1 a. - Caudal fin [a] with i-12-i or i-11-i rays; teeth pedunculated [b], bicuspid, numerous (>10 per premaxillae), organized in comb and weakly differentiated; sometimes with filamentous extensions [c] on pectoral [d], dorsal [e], upper [f] and/or lower caudal [g] spines: Harttiini .................................................................2

1b. - Caudal fin [a] with i-10-i rays; teeth straight [h] bicuspid, spoon-shaped [i], not numerous (<20 per premaxillae), strongly differentiated, sometimes reduced in size or absent; often with a more or less strong whip [j] on upper caudal spine [f]: Loricariini ..............................................................................................................10

2 a. - Mouth shape elliptical [k]...........................................................................3

2b. - Mouth shape horseshoe like [1]; with three buccal papillae [m], lateral ones trilobate; teeth small and not numerous (~ 10 per premaxillae):........ Metaloricaria ZBK

3a. - Caudal peduncle [n] strongly depressed, elliptical in transverse section (in average, the minimal depth of the caudal peduncle represents 1 to 3 % of the SL) .................................................................................................................................4

3b. - Caudal peduncle [n] weakly depressed, more or less circular in transverse section (in average, the minimal depth of the caudal peduncle represents 5 % of the SL); abdomen naked; body covered by numerous, short and dense odontodes giving a velvety aspect; species of small size (~ 50 mm):.................................... Harttiella ZBK

4 a. - Rostrum [o] present........................................................................................5

4b. - Rostrum [o] absent.........................................................................................7

5a. - Dorsal fin [p] originating more or less in front of the anal-fin [q] origin......6

5b. - Dorsal fin [p] originating more or less in front of the pelvic-fin [r] origin; abdominal cover complete and weakly structured in two to three rows: ........ Sturisoma

6 a. - Teeth not numerous (~ 20 per premaxillae); two to three rows of abdominal plates; general aspect slender, reminiscent of a stick:.............................. Farlowella ZBK

6b. - Teeth numerous (~ 100 per premaxillae); three rows of abdominal plates: .............................................................................................................. Aposturisoma ZBK

7a. - Snout rounded.................................................................................................8

7b. - Snout pointed; abdominal cover complete without particular organization, or weakly structured in two to three rows......................................... Sturisomatichthys ZBK

8 a. - Pectoral fins [s] with i-6 rays.........................................................................9

8b. - Pectoral fins [s] with i-7 rays; pectoral spine [d] sometimes with filamentous extensions [c]:.................................................................................... Lamontichthys ZBK

9a. - Eye diameter large (on average ~ 20% of head length); tip of snout naked; without filamentous extensions [c] on pectoral [d], upper [f] and lower caudal [g] spines:............................................................................................................ Harttia ZBK

9b. - Eye diameter small (on average ~ 10% of head length); tip of snout covered by plates; with filamentous extensions [c] on pectoral [d], upper [f] and lower caudal [g] spines:............................................................................... Pterosturisoma ZBK

10 a. - Lower lip bilobate [t] with a median furrow [u]; surface of this lip more or less smooth or weakly papillose; presence of a double abdominal keel [v]; throat never covered; whip [j] on upper caudal spine [f] weak or absent: Loricariichthys ZBK group...........................................................................................11

10b. - Absence of such a combination of characters; lower lip more often strongly papillose [w] or filamentous [x]..............................................................................15

11a. - Presence of a secondary structure in the organization of the abdominal cover forming a perfect elliptical area [y] at the level of the pectoral girdle: ........................................................................................................... Loricariichthys ZBK

11b. - Without such structure................................................................................12

12 a. -With conspicuous lines of odontodes [z] on head and snout......................13

12b. - Without lines of odontodes [z] on head and snout......................................14

13a. - Rostrum [o] strongly pronounced; maxillary barbels [aa] short; premaxillary teeth [ab] absent; abdomen covered by large rectangular plates organized in three rows:............................................................................................. Hemiodontichthys ZBK

13b. - Rostrum [o] weakly pronounced; maxillary [aa] and fringed [ac] barbels conspicuous and gathered in series at the lip corners; premaxillary teeth [ab] present; abdomen covered by large plates organized in two rows:............... Furcodontichthys ZBK

14 a. - Abdomen covered by small plates without particular organization; in adults pelvic-fin spine [ad] longer than last pelvic-fin [r] ray; in juveniles presence of a conspicuous basicaudal spot [ae]:.................................................... Pseudoloricaria ZBK

14b. - Abdomen covered by medium-sized plates weakly structured in two to three rows; in adults last pelvic-fin [r] ray longer than pelvic-fin spine [ad]; in juveniles absence of a conspicuous basicaudal spot [ae]:................................. Limatulichthys ZBK

15a. - Lips papillose [w]; fringed barbels [ac] of lower lip absent or inconspicuous: Rineloricaria ZBK group..............................................................................................16

15b. - Lips generally filamentous [x] or smooth [af]; fringed barbels [ac] of lower lip generally conspicuous......................................................................................19

16 a. - Abdomen partially to completely covered by plates..................................17

16b. - Abdomen naked; snout rounded; mouth circular; postorbital notches [ag] deep; strongly depressed body covered by numerous, short, and dense odontodes giving a velvety aspect; species of small size (~ 90 mm):........................ Ixinandria ZBK

17a. - Abdomen partially to completely covered by medium-sized plates; mouth not circular; postorbital notches [ag] deep.............................................................18

17b. - Abdomen covered by very small plates not contiguous; mouth circular and thick; postorbital notches [ag] weak; teeth few (~ 4 per premaxillae); body depth strong (~ 12% of SL); presence of a long whip [j] on upper caudal spine [f]; predorsal keels [ah] strong;........................................................................... Spatuloricaria ZBK

18 a. - Without a secondary structure in abdominal cover; abdominal cover weakly organized in rows; predorsal keels [ah] more or less pronounced; species of medium size (generally <20 cm):...................................................................... Rineloricaria ZBK

18b. - With a secondary structure on abdominal cover consisting in double median row of plates organized in chevrons [ai]; predorsal keels [ah] strong; species of large size (generally> 25 cm):..................................................................... Dasyloricaria ZBK

19a. - Mouth opening without particular shape; the most often predorsal keels [ah] strong; body generally weakly depressed: Loricaria ZBK group.................................20

19b. - Mouth opening trapezoidal [aj]; predorsal keels [ah] weak; body strongly depressed: Pseudohemiodon ZBK group......................................................................23

20a . - Abdominal cover the most often complete made of medium to small plates ...............................................................................................................................21

20b. - Abdominal cover incomplete, made of very small plates not contiguous; equal size [ak] of dentary [al] and premaxillary teeth [ab]; tooth size-reduced; maxillary barbels [aa] long, branched and reaching pectoral-fin [s] origin: .............................................................................................................. Paraloricaria ZBK

21 a. - Equal size [ak] of dentary [al] and premaxillary teeth [ab]; tooth very long: ........................................................................................................... Brochiloricaria ZBK

21b. - Different size [am] of dentary [al] and premaxillary teeth [ab], the latter almost two times longer than the former...............................................................22

22a. - 10 to 15 premaxillary teeth [ab]; lips extremely filamentous [x]; maxillary barbels [aa] long, strongly branched, and reaching pectoral-fin [s] origin: ......................................................................................................................... Ricola ZBK

22b. - 3 to 5 premaxillary teeth [ab]; lips filamentous [x]; maxillary barbels [aa] not reaching pectoral-fin [s] origin:.......................................................... Loricaria ZBK

23 a. - Rostrum [o] weakly pronounced or absent:................................................24

23b. - Rostrum [o] strongly pronounced; premaxillary teeth [ab] absent; dentary teeth [al] numerous (~15 per dentary) and reduced in size; lips smooth [afj; maxillary barbels [aa] short; abdominal cover complete, made of little plates without particular organization; throat covered:........................................ Reganella ZBK

24a. - Abdominal cover complete:........................................................................25

24b. - Abdominal cover incomplete, most often consisting in a double median row [an] of plates:.........................................................................................................27

25 a. - Maxillary barbels [aa] inconspicuous, not reaching gill opening [ao]; teeth very difficult to observe, invisible in normally preserved specimens....................26

25b. - Maxillary barbels [aa] conspicuous, reaching gill opening [ao]; teeth visible; head large; body strongly depressed:............................................. Pseudohemiodon ZBK

26a. - Head triangular and little; body large; trapezoidal in transverse section; with a fleshy flap [ap] partially covering the branchiostegal membrane [aq]: ............................................................................................................... Pyxiloricaria ZBK

26b. - Head rounded; upper lip with numerous filaments reaching the lower lip margin; with plates on the external margin of the maxillary barbels [aa]: .................................................................................................................... Dentectus ZBK

27 a. - Premaxillary teeth [ab] present...................................................................28

27b. - Premaxillary teeth [ab] absent; head rounded; eyes small; maxillary barbels [ac] conspicuous, reaching beyond pectoral-fin [s] origin:.................... Planiloricaria ZBK

28a. - maxillary barbels [aa] conspicuous, reaching beyond pectoral-fin [s] origin; lips stongly filamentous [x]...................................................................................29

28b. - maxillary barbels [aa] reaching gill opening [ao]; lips fairly filamentous [x] .......................................................................................................... Crossoloricaria ZBK

29 a. - Rostrum [o] pointed; 12 fringed barbels [ac]; iris operculum [ar] generally present:........................................................................................... Rhadinoloricaria ZBK

29b. - Rostrum [o] generally rounded; 14 fringed barbels [ac]; iris operculum [ar] absent or vestigial:............................................................................. Apistoloricaria ZBK

  • Raphael Covain, Sonia Fisch-Muller (2007): The genera of the Neotropical armored catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): a practical key and synopsis. Zootaxa 1462, 1-40: 5-26, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D1F13841-BD7B-4D00-B57D-9CBEC187B83C
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 59 specimens in 13 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 2.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 2.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:521Public Records:190
Specimens with Sequences:460Public Species:43
Specimens with Barcodes:460Public BINs:42
Species:77         
Species With Barcodes:73         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Loricariinae

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Wikipedia

Loricariinae

Loricariinae is a subfamily of the family Loricariidae of catfish (order Siluriformes).[1] This subfamily is divided into two tribes and about 30 genera.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Loricariinae was first described in 1831.[3] Later, in 1979, many genera were described and Loricariinae was divided into four subfamilies: Loricariini, Harttiini, Farlowellini, and Acestridiini. Eventually, the genera of Acestridiini was included under Hypoptopomatinae and genera of Farlowellini was reclassified into Hartiini.[2] This subfamily has been found to be monophyletic.[2] The most recent papers conclude that there are 30 or 31 genera; the status of Cteniloricaria is dubious; although recognized as a synonym of Harttia by some, this conclusion was reached without diagnosing the type species of Cteniloricaria.[2]

Appearance and anatomy[edit]

As loricariids, loricariinae species are characterized by a depressed body covered by bony plates, a unique pair of maxillary barbels, and modification of the mouth into a suckermouth.[2] Members of the subfamily Loricariinae show a greater diversity of lip structures and shapes than other loricariids.[4] Loricariines are characterized by a long and depressed caudal peduncle (rectangular cross-section) and by the absence of an adipose fin.[2][3] They also show dramatic variation in body shape, lip morphology and dentition. The sexual dimorphism is often pronounced and is expressed through the hypertrophy of odontodes on the pectoral fin rays, on the snout margin, and sometimes on the predorsal area of mature males. Certain genera also show sexual differences in lip and tooth structures.[2]

The Harttiini are characterized by numerous and pedunculated teeth, a caudal fin with more branched rays, the absence of postorbital notches and predorsal keels, a rounded mouth, papillose lips weakly or not fringed, and short maxillary barbels.[2] The Loricariini are characterized by a more important variation in lips and teeth shape, the frequent presence of postorbital notches and predorsal keels, longer maxillary barbels, and less numerous teeth and branched rays in the caudal fin.[2]

Genera[edit]

Genera list based on Covain and Fisch-Muller (2007), except for Cteniloricaria.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Loricariinae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved May 28, 2007. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Covain, Raphael; Fisch-Muller, Sonia (2007). "The genera of the Neotropical armored catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): a practical key and synopsis" (PDF). Zootaxa 1462: 1–40. 
  3. ^ a b Armbruster, Jonathan W. "Loricariinae". Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  4. ^ Reis, Roberto E.; Pereira, Edson H. L. (2000). "Three New Species of the Loricariid Catfish Genus Loricariichthys (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from Southern South America". In Schaefer, S. A. Copeia 2000 (4): 1029–1047. doi:10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[1029:TNSOTL]2.0.CO;2. 
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