Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Recorded from Eurasia and southeast Asia: from the Amur southward to the Xi Jiang in southern China; reported from northern Vietnam (Kottelat 2001). In China the species is recorded from the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang River), Huang He River (Yellow River), Liao River, Amur River, Zhujiang River (Pearl River), and Hainan Island. In Viet Nam recorded from rivers and large reservoirs in northern provinces, particularly the Hong, Thai Binh, Ma, and the Lam River. In Russia it is known from the Ussuri River, Khanka River, Alkedon River, and the middle and lower reaches of the Amur.
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Europe and Asia: Amur southward to Xi Jiang (Ref. 82587), and Viet Nam (Ref. 89724).
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Asia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal soft rays (total): 7; Analsoft rays: 3 - 9
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Size

Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Maximum size: 300 mm TL
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Max. size

30.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 1441)); max. published weight: 300 g (Ref. 56557)
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Ecology

Habitat

Amur River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Amur River system. Benthopelagic river fish are found near the bottom of the water column, feeding on benthos and zooplankton

The persistence of mercury contamination in Amur River bottom sediments is a major issue, arising from historic cinnabar mining in the basin and poor waste management practises, especially in the communist Soviet era, where industrial development was placed ahead of sound conservation practises.

Other large benthopelagic river fish of the Amur Basin is the 200 cm yellowcheek (Elopichthys bambusa) and the 122 cm Mongolian redfin (Chanodichthys mongolicus)

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Yangtze River Benthopelagic Habitat

This taxon is one of a number of benthopelagic species in the Yangtze River system. Benthopelagic fish inhabit the water column niche immediately above the bottom, feeding on benthos and zooplankton.

The upper Yangtze basin consists chiefly of Paleozoic limestone and terrigenous sedimentary rock, with some granitic material. The most downstream element of the upper Yangtze basin is often termed the Sichuan Basin; here the Yangtze cuts through Triassic and Permian material before entering the Three Gorges. The Three Gorges area is a stretch of the Yangtze that runs approximately 660 kilometers, terminating at the site of the Three Gorges Dam. Prior to construction of the dam, the Three Gorges area was a site of exceptional natural beauty; after dam construction the gorge areas were filled with approximately 100 meters in depth of Yangtze water, and considerable amounts of the watershed were graded.

The lower Yangtze basin consists of anabranching river structures and Pleistocene coastal terraces. Prior to development of the Three Gorges Dam, the Yangtze Delta was replenished with a copious sediment load reaching the river mouth; however, the dam has now severely limited the natural flow and deposition of sediment to the delta region. Consequently, the integrity of the delta is been compromised, with scouring exceeding deposition, and the very stability of the delta is endangered.

Lower and middle basins of the Yangtze carry heavy pollutant loads. In the lower Yangtze basin nitrate levels are high, measuring at about 1000 tons per day at Datong; these levels accrue from high applications of chemical fertilizer applied and also considerable loadings of untreated sewage due to the large human population of the basin, with correspondingly little infrastructure for sewage treatment.

Heavy metal concentrations are also high in the lower Yangtze, with measurements of dissolved lead at 0.078 microgram/liter; cadmium (0.024 microgram/liter), chromium (0.57 microgram/liter), copper (1.9 microgram/liter), and nickel (0.50 microgram/liter). Levels of dissolved arsenic have been measured at 3.3 microgram/liter) and zinc at 1.5 microgram/liter), both notably higher by factors of 5.5 and 2.5 respectively than other typical large world rivers. In Yangtze River suspended sediment, arsenic comprises 31 microgram/gram, lead comprises 83 microgram/gram, and nickel comprises 52 micrograms/gram of sediment content

A number of other benthopelagic associates are found in the Yangtze, including: Anabarilius polylepis, Bangana rendahli, Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus, Sinocyclocheilus grahami and Siniperca roulei. The demersal fish Silurus meridionalis also is found as a Yangtze River endemic species.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Found in rivers. They live in the middle and bottom of rivers in open water. They feed algae and zooplankton. Reaches maturity after about one year. Spawns in open water. Fry grow in lower section for a short time, then move to middle stream to live.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Nguyen, T.H.T.

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Allen, D.

Contributor/s

Justification
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats, it is assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
No information available.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Likely to be impacted across parts of its range by various threats including pollution and dams.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
None required.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
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