Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs or rarely, shrubs. Stipules adnate to base of petiole. Leaves digitately 5-11-foliolate. Flowers usually numerous in terminal and leaf-opposed racemes. Calyx deeply divided, 2-lipped; the lower lobe 3-fid. Corolla with beaked keel. Stamens joined in a closed tube; anthers alternately long and short. Pod dehiscent.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Lupinus

Foodplant / pathogen
Alfalfa Mosaic virus infects and damages colour breaked flower of Lupinus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
oospore of Aphanomyces euteiches infects and damages rotten root of Lupinus

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Lupinus

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Coniothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Coniothyrium subolivaceum feeds on Lupinus

Foodplant / parasite
Erysiphe pisi var. pisi parasitises live pod of Lupinus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic perithecium of Eutypella scoparia is saprobic on dead branch of Lupinus
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Fusariella dematiaceous anamorph of Fusariella hughesii is saprobic on dead Lupinus
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lachnella alboviolascens is saprobic on dead stem (large) of Lupinus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lachnella villosa is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Lupinus

Foodplant / pathogen
Lupin Mottle virus infects and damages colour breaked flower of Lupinus

Foodplant / sap sucker
densely colonial Macrosiphum albifrons sucks sap of live crown of Lupinus
Remarks: season: winter
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
abundant, sessile sporodochium of Myrothecium dematiaceous anamorph of Myrothecium roridum infects and damages dry, brittle stem (base) of Lupinus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Piezodorus lituratus sucks sap of unripe pod of Lupinus

Foodplant / spot causer
effuse colony of Pleiochaeta dematiaceous anamorph of Pleiochaeta setosa causes spots on live leaf (esp. basal) of Lupinus

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Rhabdospora coelomycetous anamorph of Rhabdospora lupini is saprobic on dead stem of Lupinus
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Rosellinia aquila is saprobic on dead branch of Lupinus
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / feeds on
Thrips angusticeps feeds on live leaf of Lupinus

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous uredium of Uromyces anthyllidis parasitises live leaf of Lupinus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 298
Specimens with Sequences: 276
Specimens with Barcodes: 119
Species: 117
Species With Barcodes: 103
Public Records: 46
Public Species: 34
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Lupinus

"Lupin" redirects here. For other uses, see Lupin (disambiguation).

Lupinus, commonly known as lupin or lupine (North America), is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. The genus includes over 200 species, with centers of diversity in North and South America.[2] Smaller centers occur in North Africa and the Mediterranean.[2][3] Seeds of various species of lupins have been used as a food for over 3000 years around the Mediterrranean (Gladstones, 1970) and for as much as 6000 years in the Andean highlands (Uauy et al., 1995), but never have they been accorded the same status as soybeans or dry peas and other pulse crops. The pearl lupin of the Andean highlands of South America, Lupinus mutabilis, known locally as tarwi or chocho, was extensively cultivated, but there seems to have been no conscious genetic improvement other than to select for larger and water-permeable seeds. Users soaked the seed in running water to remove most of the bitter alkaloids and then cooked or toasted the seeds to make them edible (Hill, 1977; Aguilera and Truer, 1978), or else boiled and dried them to make kirku (Uauy et al., 1995). However, Spanish domination led to a change in the eating habits of the indigenous peoples, and only recently has interest in using lupins as a food been renewed (Hill, 1977).[4]

Description[edit]

The species are mostly herbaceous perennial plants 0.3–1.5 m (0.98–4.92 ft) tall, but some are annual plants and a few are shrubs up to 3 m (9.8 ft) tall. An exception is the chamis de monte (Lupinus jaimehintoniana) of Oaxaca in Mexico, which is a tree up to 8 m (26 ft) tall.[5] Lupins have soft green to grey-green leaves which may be coated in silvery hairs, often densely so. The leaf blades are usually palmately divided into five to 28 leaflets, or reduced to a single leaflet in a few species of the southeastern United States. The flowers are produced in dense or open whorls on an erect spike, each flower 1–2 cm long. The pea-like flowers have an upper standard, or banner, two lateral wings, and two lower petals fused into a keel. The flower shape has inspired common names such as bluebonnets and quaker bonnets. The fruit is a pod containing several seeds.

Uses[edit]

Culinary[edit]

Main article: Lupin bean

The legume seeds of lupins, commonly called lupin beans, were popular with the Romans, who cultivated the plants throughout the Roman Empire; hence, common names like lupini in Romance languages.

Australian Sweet Lupins (Lupinus angustifolius) are high in protein, dietary fibre and antioxidants, very low in starch, and, like all legumes, are gluten-free. Lupins can be used to make a variety of foods both sweet and savoury including everyday meals, traditional fermented foods, baked foods and sauces.

The European White Lupin (Lupinus albus) beans are commonly sold in a salty solution in jars (like olives and pickles) and can be eaten with or without the skin. Lupini dishes are most commonly found in Europe, especially in Portugal, Egypt, Greece, and Italy, and also in Brazil. In Portugal, Spain, and Spanish Harlem, they are popularly consumed with beer. In Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Israel and Palestine, salty and chilled lupini beans are called termos and are served as part of an apéritif or a snack. The Andean lupin or tarwi (L. mutabilis) was a widespread food in the Incan Empire. Other species, such as L. albus (white lupin), L. angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin),[6] and L. hirsutus (blue lupin)[7] also have edible seeds. Lupins were also used by many Native American peoples such as the Yavapai in North America. Lupins are known as altramuz in Spain and Argentina, from Arabic ترمس termes. The seeds are used for different foods, from vegan sausages to lupin-tofu or baking-enhancing lupin flour.

Agriculture[edit]

Whilst originally cultivated as a green manure or forage, lupins are increasingly grown for their seeds, which can be used as an alternative to soybeans. Sweet (low alkaloid) lupins are highly regarded as a stock feed, particularly for ruminants but also for pigs and poultry and more recently as an ingredient in aqua-feeds. The market for lupin seeds for human food is currently small, but researchers believe it has great potential. Lupin seeds are considered "superior" to soybeans in certain applications and there is increasing evidence for their potential health benefits. They contain similar protein to soybean but less fat. As a food source, they are gluten-free and high in dietary fiber, amino acids, and antioxidants, and they are considered to be prebiotic. About 85% of the world's lupin seeds are grown in Western Australia.[8]

Three Mediterranean species of lupin, blue (narrow-leafed) lupin, white lupin, and yellow lupin, are widely cultivated for livestock and poultry feed.

Like other legumes, they can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia via a rhizobiumroot nodule symbiosis, fertilizing the soil for other plants. This adaption allows lupins to be tolerant of infertile soils and capable of pioneering change in barren and poor-quality soils. The genus Lupinus is nodulated by Bradyrhizobium soil bacteria.[9]

Horticulture[edit]

Lupins are popular ornamental plants in gardens. Numerous hybrids and cultivars are available. Some species, such as garden lupin (L. polyphyllus) and hybrids like the rainbow lupin (L. ×regalis) are common garden flowers. Lupins can be good companion plants in gardens, increasing the soil nitrogen for vegetables and other plants.

Ecology[edit]

Certain species, such as the yellow bush lupin (L. arboreus), are considered invasive weeds when they appear outside their native ranges. In New Zealand, L. polyphyllus has escaped into the wild and grows in large numbers along main roads and streams on the South Island. A similar spread of the species has occurred in Finland after the non-native species was first deliberately planted in the landscaping along the main roads. Lupins have been planted in some parts of Australia with a considerably cooler climate, particularly in rural Victoria and New South Wales.

Lupins are important larval food plants for many lepidopterans, the butterflies and moths. These include:

Toxicity and allergenicity[edit]

Main article: Lupin poisoning

Lupins contain some amounts of certain secondary compounds, including isoflavones and alkaloids such as lupinine and sparteine which is removed through processing. Early detection means that lupins that contain these elements are not selected for food grade products.

Cross-allergenicity of peanut and lupine: the risk of lupine allergy in patients allergic to peanuts.[16] Most lupin reactions reported have been in people with peanut allergy.[17] As of 2006 the European Commission requires food labels to indicate the presence of "lupin and products thereof" in food.[18]

History[edit]

Consumed throughout the Mediterranean region and the Andean mountains, lupins were eaten by the early Egyptian and pre-Incan people and were known to Roman agriculturalists to contribute to the fertility of soils.

In the late eighteenth century lupins were introduced into northern Europe as a means of improving soil quality and by the 1860s the ‘Garden Yellow Lupin’ was seen across the sandy soils of the Baltic coastal plain.

Watson (1873) originally divided the genus Lupinus into three sections, Platycarpos, Lupinus, and Lupinellus, based on habitat and the number of ovules. Most of the species found in the Americas were assigned to Lupinus. Platycarpos consisted of some annuals with two ovules and two seeds (e.g., L. densiflorus, L. micricarpus), while Lupinellus had only one species (L. uncialis).

While Watson's work was predominantly based on study of North American species, the later research of Ascherson and Graebner (1907) was more global. They described two subgenera, Eulupinus and Platycarpos, using similar criteria. Most species fell into the subgenus Eulupinus, while Platycarpos included the annual species from the Eastern Hemisphere in Watson's classification.

A current schema retains this distinction, but uses the nomenclature for the subgenera of Platycarpos and Lupinus. In this schema, subgenus Platycarpos (S.Wats.) Kurl. contains perennial and annual species from the Western Hemisphere, with a minimum two or more ovules or seedbuds. Subgenus Lupinus consists of 12 species from Africa and the Mediterranean, with a minimum of 4 ovules or seedbuds.[9]

The first steps were taken in the early twentieth century to truly transform the lupin into a contemporary, domesticated cropping plant. Pioneered by German scientists, their goal was to cultivate a ‘sweet’ variety of lupin that didn’t have the bitter taste (due to a mixture of alkaloids in the seed) making it more suitable for both human consumption and animal feed.

The successful development of lupin varieties with the necessary “sweet gene,” paved the way for the greater adoption of lupins across Europe and later Australia.

And further work carried out by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food during the 1950s and 60s now see more sweet lupin crops produced in Western Australia than anywhere else in the world.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Lupinus L. and, in particular, its North-American species, were divided by Sereno Watson (1873) into three parts: Lupinus, Platycarpos, and Lupinnelus. Differences in habit and in the number of ovules were accepted as the basis for this classification. A majority of perennial and annual species from the American continent described by Watson were referred to Lupinus. To the Platycarpos section were attributed some annual species with two ovules in the ovary and two seeds in the pod (L. densiflorus, L. microcarpus, etc.). Section Lupinnelus consisted of one species (L. uncialis), with axillary and solitary flowers, scarcely reflexed banner, and also with two ovules in the ovary. Presently, the existence of such species seems doubtful.[vague]

This principle of classification was extended by Ascherson and Graebner (1907) to cover all lupins from the eastern and western hemispheres. Lupinus L. was for the first time subdivided into two subgenera: A. Eulupinus and B. Platycarpos (Ascherson and Graebner, 1907). Quantity of ovules (seedbuds) in the ovary and seeds in the pod was also accepted as the criterion for this division. Most of the described species from the eastern and western hemispheres were referred to subgen. A. Eulupinus. Subgen. B. Platycarpos included several annual species from the eastern hemisphere with two seedbuds and seeds in the bean (the same species, as the one specified by S. Watson).

The taxonomy of Lupinus has always been confusing. It is not clear how many distinct species there are or how they might be organized within the genus. The plants are variable and the taxa are not always distinct from one another. Some American taxa have been described as complexes rather than separate species.[19] Estimates of the number of lupine species generally fall between 200 and 500.[3] One authority places the estimate at approximately 267 species worldwide.[2] There are currently two subgenera recognized.

Subgenus Platycarpos[edit]

New World lupins
Lupinusdensiflorusaureus.jpg
The flowers of Lupinus densiflorus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Genisteae
Genus:Lupinus
Subgenus:Platycarpos
(S.Wats.) Kurl. 1989
Type species
Lupinus densiflorus Benth.
Species

ca. 500; see text.

Synonyms
  • Platycarpos S.Wats. 1873
  • Platycarpos Aschers. et Graebn. 1907

The ovary contains two and more ovules or seedbuds. The seed are predominantly small-sized, with an underdeveloped embryo and small amount of endosperm. Cotyledons are small-sized, with long caulicles. The first pair of true leaves is alternate. The stem is predominantly naked with waxen coating. Dominating is the monopodial type of branching. Leaflets are smooth, with waxen coating or slight pubescence, predominantly narrow. Pods are flat or orbicular, with two or more seeds. Represented by frutcuilose, fruticose and herbaceous perennial forms, or less often annual ones. Plants are cross-pollinated. Chromosome number 2n = 36, 48, or 96.[20] This subgenus is distributed throughout North, Central and South America, predominantly in the mining systems of the Andes and Cordillera. Some species are cultivated (L. mutabilis, L. polyphyllus). This subgenus includes several hundred species, requiring further analysis of their authenticity.

It comprises the following species:[21][22][23]

Subgenus Lupinus[edit]

Old World lupins
Lupinus albus flower.JPG
The flowers of Lupinus albus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Fabales
Family:Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Tribe:Genisteae
Genus:Lupinus
Subgenus:Lupinus
S.Wats.
Type species
Lupinus albus L.
Species

12; see text.

Synonyms
  • Eulupinus Aschers. & Graebn. 1907

In its current circumscription,[20] subgenus Lupinus includes 12 species from the Mediterranean region and Africa with at least four ovules or seedbuds in the ovary:

  • Lupinus albus L. 1753—white lupine
    • subsp. albus L.
    • subsp. graecus (Boiss. & Spruner) Franco & P.Silva
    • subsp. termis (Forsk.) Ponert.
  • Lupinus angustifolius L. 1753—blue lupin, narrow-leafed lupin
    • var. angustifolius L.
    • var. albopunctatus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. griseomaculatus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. chalybens Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. corylinus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. purpureus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. rubidus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. atabekovae Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sparsiusculus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. brunneus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. albosyringeus Taran.
    • var. albidus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. candidus Kuptzov. et Kurl.
  • Lupinus atlanticus Gladstones 1974
  • Lupinus cosentinii Guss. 1828 —sandplain lupin
  • Lupinus digitatus Forsk. 1775[53]
  • Lupinus hispanicus Boiss. & Reut. 1842
    • subsp. bicolor (Merino) Gladst.
    • subsp. hispanicus Boiss. & Reut.
  • Lupinus luteus L. 1753—yellow lupin
    • var. luteus L.
    • var. maculosus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. kazimierskii Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. arcellus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sempolovskii (Atab) Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. melanospermus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. niger Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. cremeus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. leucospermus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sulphureus (Atab.) Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. stepanovae Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. ochroleucus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. aurantiacus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. croceus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. aureus Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. albicans Kurl. et Stankev.
    • var. sinskayae Kurl. et Stankev.
  • Lupinus micranthus Guss. 1828
  • Lupinus palaestinus Boiss. 1849—white-grey lupine
  • Lupinus pilosus Murr. 1774—blue lupine
  • Lupinus princei Harms 1901
  • Lupinus somaliensis Baker f. 1895

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status[edit]

The status of the following binomials is unresolved:[23]

Hybrids[edit]

The following hybrids have been described:[23]

Symbolic uses[edit]

Lupinus texensis, a bluebonnet, the state flower of Texas

Bluebonnets, including the Texas bluebonnet (L. texensis), are the state flowers of Texas in the United States.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso D, Pennington RT, de Queiroz LP, Boatwright JS, Van Wyk B-E, Wojciechowski MF, Lavin M. (2013). "Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes". S Afr J Bot 89: 58–75. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2013.05.001. 
  2. ^ a b c Drummond, C. S., et al. (2012). Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling. Systematic Biology 61(3) 443-60.
  3. ^ a b Aïnouche, A. K. and R. J. Bayer. (1999). Phylogenetic relationships in Lupinus (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) based on internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany 86(4), 590-607.
  4. ^ Gladstone, J.S., Atkins C.A. and Hamblin J (ed) (1998). Lupins as Crop Plants: Biology, Production and Utilization pg 353.
  5. ^ Villa-Ruano, N., et al. (2012). Alkaloid profile, antibacterial and allelopathic activities of Lupinus jaimehintoniana BL Turner (Fabaceae). Archives of Biological Sciences 64(3), 1065-71.
  6. ^ Murcia, J. and I. Hoyos. (1998). 'Características y applicaciones de las plantas: Altramuz Azul (Lupinus angustifolius). [in Spanish]. Accessed 3 August 2013.
  7. ^ Hedrick, U. P. (ed.) Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. 1919. 387-88.
  8. ^ Ross, K. Soy substitute edges its way into European meals. New York Times November 16, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Kurlovich, B. S. and A. K. Stankevich. (eds.) Classification of Lupins. In: Lupins: Geography, Classification, Genetic Resources and Breeding. St. Petersburg: Intan. 2002. pg 42-43. Accessed 2 August 2013.
  10. ^ Mission Blue Butterfly. Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy.
  11. ^ Callophrys irus. Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility.
  12. ^ Erynnis persius. Atlas of North Dakota Butterflies. USGS.
  13. ^ Glaucopsyche lygdamus. Atlas of North Dakota Butterflies. USGS.
  14. ^ Plebejus melissa. Butterflies and Moths of North America.
  15. ^ Schinia suetus. Entomology Collection. University of Alberta.
  16. ^ The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 104(4 Pt. 1), 883-88.
  17. ^ Opinion of the scientific panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies on a request from the Commission related to the evaluation of lupin for labelling purposes. The European Food Safety Authority Journal 302 1-11. 2005.
  18. ^ Commission Directive 2006/142/EC of 22 December 2006 amending Annex IIIa of Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council listing the ingredients which must under all circumstances appear on the labeling of foodstuffs.
  19. ^ Naganowska, B., et al. (2005). 2C DNA variation and relationships among New World species of the genus Lupinus (Fabaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 256(1-4), 147-57.
  20. ^ a b [1]
  21. ^ "ILDIS LegumeWeb entry for Lupinus". International Legume Database & Information Service. Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. Last edited on 1 November 2005 (rebuilt on 24 April 2013). Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  22. ^ USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "GRIN species records of Lupinus". Germplasm Resources Information Network—(GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c "The Plant List entry for Lupinus". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  24. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus alpestris as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  25. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus aridorum as a synonym of Lupinus westianus.
  26. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus aridus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  27. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus attenuatus as a synonym of Lupinus coriaceus.
  28. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus brevicaulis as a synonym of Lupinus grisebachianus.
  29. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus burkei as a synonym of Lupinus polyphyllus.
  30. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus caespitosus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  31. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus confertus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  32. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus crassus as a synonym of Lupinus ammophilus.
  33. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus cumulicola as a synonym of Lupinus diffusus.
  34. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus densiflorus as a synonym of Lupinus microcarpus.
  35. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus depressus as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  36. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus hartwegii as a synonym of Lupinus mexicanus.
  37. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus heptaphyllus as a synonym of Lupinus gibertianus.
  38. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus hilarianus as a synonym of Lupinus gibertianus.
  39. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus hillii as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  40. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus luteolus as a synonym of Lupinus luteus.
  41. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus lyallii as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  42. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus matucanicus as a synonym of Lupinus lindleyanus.
  43. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus minimus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  44. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus montigenus as a synonym of Lupinus argenteus.
  45. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus oreganus as a synonym of Lupinus sulphureus.
  46. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus ornatus as a synonym of Lupinus sericeus.
  47. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus polycarpus as a synonym of Lupinus bicolor.
  48. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus pratensis as a synonym of Lupinus confertus.
  49. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus prunophilus as a synonym of Lupinus polyphyllus.
  50. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus ruber as a synonym of Lupinus microcarpus.
  51. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus sellulus as a synonym of Lupinus lepidus.
  52. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus subvexus as a synonym of Lupinus microcarpus.
  53. ^ Some sources treat Lupinus digitatus as a synonym of Lupinus cosentinii.

References[edit]

  • Eastwood, R. J., et al. 2008. Diversity and evolutionary history of lupins—insights from new phylogenies. pp. 346–54, In: Palta, J. A. and J. B. Burger. (Eds.) Lupins for Health & Wealth. Proceedings 12th International Lupin Conference, Fremantle, Australia; International Lupin Association, Canterbury, New Zealand.
  • Putnam, D. H., et al. Lupine. Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin Extension. 1997.
  • Gladstone, J. S., Atkins, C. A. and Hamblin J (ed). Lupins as Crop Plants: Biology, Production and Utilization. 1998.
  • Zhukovsky, P.M. 1929. A contribution to the knowledge of genus Lupinus Tourn. Bull. Apll. Bot. Gen. Pl.-Breed., Leningrad-Moscow, XXI, I:16-294.
  • Kurlovich, B.S. 1989. On the centers of species formation of the genus Lupinus L. (in Russian). Bull.N.I. Vavilov Inst. of plant Industry. Leningrad, 193:20-24.
  • Kurlovich, B.S., Rep’ev, S.I., Shchelko, L.G., Budanova, V.I., Petrova, M.V., Buravtseva, T.V., Stankevich, A.K., Kartuzova, L.T., Alexandrova, T.G., Teplyakova and T.E., Malysh, L.K. 1995. Theoretical basis of plant breeding. Vol.111. The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya, and bean), St.Petersburg, VIR, 438p.
  • Kurlovich, B.S.(Ed.). 2002. Lupins. Geography, Classification, Genetic Resources and Breeding. «Intan», 468p.
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Bluebonnet

Lupinus texensis
A field of Bluebonnets beside Texas State Highway 6 near College Station, Texas

The bluebonnet, as a name common to several North American species of Lupinus, is the state flower of Texas. These taxa include Lupinus argenteus var. palmeri, Lupinus concinnus, Lupinus havardii, Lupinus plattensis, Lupinus subcarnosus, and Lupinus texensis. They typically grow about 0.3 m (1 ft) tall. The name may come from the shape of the petals of the flower and their resemblance to the bonnets worn by pioneer women to shield themselves from the sun. It may instead be derived from the Scottish term bluebonnet, for the traditional blue coloured version of the tam o'shanter hat.

Lupinus texensis is almost exclusively blue in the wild. A random genetic mutation does occasionally create an albino white bluebonnet naturally. Texas A&M University researchers were successful in breeding red and white strains, creating a Texas state flag in bluebonnets for the 1986 Texas Sesquicentennial. Further research led to a deep maroon strain, the university's official color.

Lupinus argenteus var. palmeri (syn. L. palmeri) grows in Texas, California, Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico. It is commonly referred to as a bluebonnet lupine.

Bluebonnet season in Central Texas generally runs from mid-March to late May.

Contents

Texas traditions

On March 7, 1901, Lupinus subcarnosus (also known as buffalo clover), a species of bluebonnet, was recognized as the state flower of Texas. However, Lupinus texensis (Texas bluebonnet) emerged as the favorite of most Texans. As a result of this popularity, in 1971 the Texas Legislature made any species of bluebonnet the state flower, including L. subcarnosus, L. texensis, L. concinnus, L. plattensis and L. havardii.[1] Lupinus texensis remains as the iconic Texas bluebonnet.[2] The flowers' deep blue blossoms can be seen from March through May in many areas of Texas. A popular spring pastime in Texas is photographing children, family members, and pets among the bluebonnets. Many families return to the same spot every year for photographs as part of a family tradition.[3]

Another Texas tradition was started by Lady Bird Johnson, after her return from Washington, D.C. as First Lady to President Lyndon Baines Johnson. Lady Bird persuaded the government of the State of Texas to seed bluebonnets and other wildflowers along the highways throughout the state. Every spring the flowers return as a legacy of the First Lady.

Urban legend

It is a common myth that it is illegal to pick bluebonnets in Texas, possibly because the bluebonnet is Texas' state flower. In fact, it is perfectly legal to pick them.[4] Part of the confusion may stem from illegal activity associated with the picking of the flower, such as parking along busy highways or trespassing on private property.[citation needed]

References

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