Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Once widely distributed in the Kern River system, California; now occurs in the Kern River from Durrwood Creek upstream to Junction Meadow; populations established through transplantation occur in Rattlesnake Creek and Osa Creek and possibly upper Peppermint Creek and others (Moyle 2002).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Clear, cold mountain streams of moderate to large size and high water quality.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

Comments: Very few if any genetically pure populations are extant.

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Global Abundance

Unknown

Comments: Uncommon in native range. No population estimates exist (1990).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T1 - Critically Imperiled

Reasons: Small range in southern California; threatened by hybridization/introgression with non-native rainbow trout and by poor watershed management.

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Populations have not stabilized.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 70 to >90%

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Very high - high

Comments: Primary threats include continued introgression with introduced rainbow trouts (genetically distinctive fishes that can be assigned to this taxon no longer exist in most areas), habitat losses from poor watershed management (grazing, logging, roading building), and unpredictable events such as floods, drought, and fire (Moyle et al. 1989, Moyle 2002). Negatively impacted as a result of the Flat Fire of 1976; subsequent landslides filled in pools and silted spawning areas (Moyle et al. 1989). Introduced beavers have significantly altered the river in Sequoia National Park, reducing habitat availability for trout (see Moyle 2002). Populations can withstand rafting, swimming, and catch-and-release fishing.

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Determine life history requirements.

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Global Protection: None. No occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Comments: Much of the remaining habitat is in Sequoia National Forest (about 29 km) and Sequoia National Park (about 40 km) (Moyle 2002).

Needs: Protect sites that still contain this species.

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Wikipedia

Kern River rainbow trout

The Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gilberti is a species of fish in the Salmonidae family and a localized subspecies of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is found in a short section of the main stem of the Kern River and several tributaries in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains in California. The Kern River rainbow trout is a "Species of Special Concern" in the state of California due to habitat loss and hybridization with other native and non-native trouts in their range.[2] The Kern River rainbow trout is one of three trout endemic to the Kern River basin, all subspecies of O. mykiss, sharing the headwaters of the Kern River with the Little Kern golden trout and Golden trout. Some of the existing range of the Kern River rainbow trout lies within the California Golden Trout Wilderness.[3]

Distribution[edit]

Kern river rainbow trout are endemic to the Kern River and tributaries in Tulare County, California.[4] Its current range is drastically reduced from its historic range. Remnant populations live in the Kern river above Durrwood creek, in upper Ninemile, Rattlesnake and Osa creeks, and possibly in upper peppermint Creek. Kern river rainbows have been successfully introduced into the Kaweah-Kern river and Chagoopa creek. Its historic range in the main stem of the Kern River it probably extended downstream below where Isabella Dam is today and upstream in the South Fork of the Kern River as far as Onyx creek.,[5][6] The subspecies has been extirpated in the Kern river from the Johnsondale bridge downstream. Behnke (2002) doubts that pure Kern River rainbow trout still exist in their historic range, but recent genetic analyses suggest that at least some un-hybridized populations still exist.,[6][7]

Taxonomy[edit]

[8] [9] [10] [11]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Oncorhynchus mykiss gilberti". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Fish Species of Special Concern". California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  3. ^ "ECONOMIC VALUE OF GOLDEN TROUT FISHING IN THE GOLDEN TROUT WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA". caltrout.org. Retrieved 2013-11-17. 
  4. ^ "Salmon, Steelhead and Trout in California-Status of an Emblematic Fauna". UC Davis Center for Watershed Sciences. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  5. ^ "California's Golden Treasure, Our State Fish". caltrout.org. Retrieved 2013-11-17. 
  6. ^ a b "Kern River Rainbow Trout". caltrout.org. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  7. ^ "Kern River Rainbow Trout (native)". California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 2013-11-17. 
  8. ^ Behnke, Robert J. "Trouts of the Upper Kern River Basin, California, with Reference to Systematics and Evolution of Western North American Salmo". 
  9. ^ Molly Rebecca Stephens (2007). "Systematics, Genetics and Conservation of Golden Trout". genome-lab.ucdavis.edu. 
  10. ^ "Kern River rainbow trout conservation genetics". Genomic Variation Lab, University of California, Davis. Retrieved 2013-11-16. 
  11. ^ Behnke, Robert J.; Tomelleri, Joseph R. (illustrator) (2002). Trout and Salmon of North America. The Free Press. pp. 104–114. ISBN 0743222202. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: This subspecies formerly was listed as a population of golden trout (taxon aguabonita) (Schreck and Behnke 1971), then was shown to be effectively isolated genetically and physically (Gold and Gall 1975). It is sufficiently distinct genetically (Berg 1987) and meristically (Gold and Gall 1975) to warrant subspecies status. Subspecies gilberti is genetically intermediate between coastal rainbow trout (subspecies gairdneri) and the Little Kern River golden trout (subspecies whitei) (closer to the former) (Berg 1987), and it may have originated through hybridization and introgression between subspecies gairdneri and whitei, followed by isolation (Berg 1987). Behnke (1992) grouped the Kern and Little Kern golden trout as one subspecies (gilberti) of O. mykiss. He stated that they could be recognized as separate subspecies (gilberti and whitei, respectively) provided they are kept together in the same species (O. mykiss). Behnke indicated that whitei may be indistinguishable from gilberti. Behnke (2002) treated these forms as three subspecies: Golden Trout Creek golden trout or California golden trout (O. mykiss aguabonita), Kern River rainbow trout (O. mykiss gilberti), and Little Kern River golden trout (O. mykiss whitei).

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