Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii — Details

Inland Redband Trout and Redband Steelhead learn more about names for this taxon

Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Columbia River basin east of the Cascades to barrier falls on the Kootenay, Pend Oreille, Spokane, and Snake rivers; the upper Fraser River basin above Hell's Gate; and Athabasca headwaters of the Mackenzie River basin, where headwater transfers evidently occurred from the upper Fraser River system (Behnke 1992). Native redband trout of Mackenzie's Liard and Peace drainages may be this subspecies (Behnke 1992). Native trout of the Oregon desert basins and the Upper Klamath Lake basin could be included in this subspecies (Behnke 1992).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Winter habitat includes deep pools with extensive amounts of cover in third-order mountain streams (Muhlfeld et al. 2001). Summer surveys indicated that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for production (Muhlfeld et al. 2001).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

In the Kootenai River drainage, Montana, 23 redband trout monitored from October to December had home ranges of 5-377 m (mean 67 m) (Muhlfeld et al. 2001).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats aquatic insects, crustaceans, and zooplankton; also other fishes and fish eggs; may defend feeding area. Adult migrants seldom feed in freshwater.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

See Stearley (1992) for a discussion of the historical ecology and life history evolution of Pacific salmons and trouts (ONCORHYNCHUS).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: In the Columbia River basin, nearly all upriver and many lower river stocks have declined, though most Snake River native stocks appear to be improving after having declined (Nehlsen et al. 1991).

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Threats

Comments: Snake River native stocks are threatened by mainstem passage problems (e.g., dams), inadequate water flows, and habitat degradation (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Many stocks in the Columbia River basin are threatened by mainstem passage problems, habitat damage (due to logging, road construction, mining, agriculture, and grazing, which decrease water quality and increase siltation), and interactions with hatchery fishes (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Dams cause problems for migrants via mortality in turbines, increased predation in impoundments and below dams, and loss of migratory motivation in the impoundments (Spahr et al. 1991).

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Management

Management Requirements: Patterns of genetic structure in populations in the upper Columbia River drainage indicate that watershed-specific broodstocks are needed by fisheries managers for reintroduction or supplementation of populations at risk of extinction (Knudsen et al. 2002).

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Needs: See Nehlsen et al. (1991) for general protection and management recommendations for anadromous salmonids.

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Wikipedia

Columbia River redband trout

The Columbia River redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) is one of three redband trout subspecies of the rainbow trout in the Salmonidae family.[1] Native in the Columbia River and its tributaries in Montana, Oregon, Washington and Idaho. Anadromous forms are known as redband steelhead.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Behnke, Robert J.; Tomelleri, Joseph R. (illustrator) (2002). "Rainbow and Redband Trout". Trout and Salmon of North America. The Free Press. pp. 65–122. ISBN 0743222202. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Formerly known as Salmo gairdneri gairdneri (Smith and Stearley 1989), but this taxon is closely related to Pacific salmon and is conspecific with Asiatic steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss).

Behnke (1992) included in O. m. gairdneri Columbia River and Fraser River redband trout and all closely related forms derived from these, including steelhead populations (but not those included in subspecies irideus and mykiss), populations adapted to lakes (Kamloops trout), and resident stream populations. Native trout of the the Oregon desert basins and the Upper Klamath Lake basin could be placed in this subspecies, or several new subspecies could be recognized (Behnke 1992).

A long history of stocking hatchery rainbow trout of the subspecies irideus in the range of native gairdneri in most drainages of the Columbia River basin east of the Cascade Range has resulted in hybridization between the two subspecies such that pure populations of gairdneri are now relatively rare (Behnke 2002).

Populations in the upper Columbia River drainage exhibit significant genetic divergence of management significance (Knudsen et al. 2002).

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