Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs are encased in horny shells (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

Originally described from deep waters off New Zealand and New Caledonia. More recently, there have been infrequent captures of this species from deepwater seamounts in the Southern Ocean. This species is apparently wide ranging throughout the Southern Ocean and probably has a circumglobal distribution.
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Waters around New Caledonia.
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Western Pacific: New Caledonia and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Size

Max. size

112 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 45071)); 120.4 cm TL (female)
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Diagnostic Description

Body blue-gray with a dark line around the orbit and dark shadowing along edges of lateral-line canals. Snout pointed. Preopercular and oral lateral-line canals sharing a common branch. D1 concave with pale margin. Males with frontal tenaculum deeply curved, upturned distally with spines along dorsal upturned edge. Prepelvic tenacula deeply indented along distal margin. Pelvic claspers with pale fleshy distal lobes, divided distally for 1/3 their length, tips usually extending beyond distal edge of pelvic fins. Ventral caudal fin not deeply indented at its origin to form a separate anal fin.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A large chimaera of the deep continental and insular slopes, in depths of 750 to 1,719 m off South Africa and 650 to 1,707 m off New Zealand and New Caledonia, but mostly collected below 1,000 m depth.

Oviparous. No eggs, embryos or small juveniles are known to have been collected. Nothing is known of reproductive biology. Diet likely consists of a variety of benthic invertebrates, with dominant prey species varying based on habitat.

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (body length): Female: ~55 cm BDL; Male: ~60 to 65 cm BDL.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total/body length): Recorded at 111 cm TL (91 cm BDL); maximum probably ~120 cm TL.
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 612 - 1707 m (Ref. 45071)
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Depth range based on 143 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 123 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 630.5 - 2065.53
  Temperature range (°C): 2.059 - 6.686
  Nitrate (umol/L): 23.083 - 42.623
  Salinity (PPS): 34.287 - 34.606
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.767 - 5.923
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.579 - 3.009
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.932 - 173.732

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 630.5 - 2065.53

Temperature range (°C): 2.059 - 6.686

Nitrate (umol/L): 23.083 - 42.623

Salinity (PPS): 34.287 - 34.606

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.767 - 5.923

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.579 - 3.009

Silicate (umol/l): 3.932 - 173.732
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous (Ref. 205).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hydrolagus trolli

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Compagno, L.J.V. & Dagit, D.D.

Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This deepwater species, only described in 2002, appears to have a widespread distribution throughout the Southern Ocean and may be moderately common in New Zealand waters, but rare in other regions. Recorded on deep continental and insular slopes at depths of 650 to 1,719 m, mostly below 1,000 m. This species is possibly under threat as bycatch from intensive and widespread deepwater trawl and longline fishing (for Patagonian toothfish, orange roughy and other valuable teleost species) within its known range. Of concern because of its restricted habitat on the deep slope as well as possible low reproductive rate and slow growth. More specimens and data, particularly bycatch and life history data, are needed and this assessment should be reviewed when more data are available.
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Population

Population
Nothing is known of population size or structure. Appears to be more common around New Zealand and rarer in other parts of its range, but this may only be a reflection of fishing effort. Future research may provide evidence that separate populations exist across the range of this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Common from deepwater fishing grounds off New Zealand where it is threatened by deepwater benthic trawls. Off South Africa H. trolli is threatened by capture as bycatch in deep-slope longline and trawl fisheries for valuable bony fishes including toothfish, roughies and dories. Illegal fishing activities, particularly for Patagonian toothfish, are likely taking this species, and given the scope of these practices may be impacting upon its population.

A re-evaluation of the species' conservation status is recommended after additional bycatch information is obtained, which is a priority.
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Data deficient (DD)
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
More information is required of bycatch levels from the teleost fisheries impacting this species. More specimens, particularly juveniles are needed, as is life history data.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA?Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and management of all chondrichthyan species in the region.
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Wikipedia

Pointy-nosed blue chimaera

The pointy-nosed blue chimaera or Ray Troll's chimaera[1] (Hydrolagus trolli) is a species of fish in the Chimaeridae family found near New Caledonia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Its natural habitat is open seas. It is threatened by habitat loss.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ratfish named after Ketchikan artist Ray Troll". Ketchikan Daily News. November 8, 2002. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  2. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. & Dagit, D.D. 2005. Hydrolagus trolli. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 3 August 2007.


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