The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- M. S. Engel. 2001. The first large carpenter bee from the Tertiary of North America, with a consideration of the geological history of Xylocopinae (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 127(2):245-254
- Michener, Charles D. 2000. The Bees of the World. xiv + 913
- Michener, Charles D. 2007. The Bees of the World, Second Edition. xvi + 953