Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

This bee is solitary at high altitudes in Colorado, USA, and possibly Italy as well, but eusocial at lower altitudes in Colorado and elsewhere in USA. Its nesting biology is described by Sakagami and Michener (1962): Nest architecture is Type IIIb: Lateral burrows are very short or absent such that cells are almost attached to the burrow walls at a right angle. The cells are not spatially concentrated in any part of the burrow. Nest aggregation information: 10 in one square meter.

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© Smith, Adam

Source: Halictidae

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / kleptoparasite
larva of Sphecodes gibbus kleptoparasitises pollen store of Halictus rubicundus

Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
solitary larva of Zodion cinereum is endoparasitoid of adult of Halictus rubicundus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Halictus rubicundus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 58 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTT---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ATTCTCCCCCGTTTTGGATTAATTTCACATATTATTTTTAATGAGAGAGGAAAAAAA---GAAATTTTCGGAAATTTAGGAATAATTTATGCTATATTAGGAATCGGATTTTTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATATTTACTGTAGGATTAGATGTTGATACACGAGCATATTTTACATCTGCTACTATAATTATTGCTGTACCAACAGGAATTAAAGTATTTAGATGAATT---GCTACTTATTGTGGAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Halictus rubicundus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 66
Specimens with Barcodes: 150
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Halictus rubicundus

Halictus rubicundus is a species of sweat bee found throughout the Northern Hemisphere. It is small (~1 cm), dark brown, with fine white bands across the apices of the abdominal segments. The legs are often somewhat reddish. The males are more slender, with longer antennae and yellow markings on the face and legs; they are distinguished from males of similar species by the absence of an apical hair band on the terminal abdominal segment.

Its social behaviour differs depending on climate - it is a solitary species in cooler regions, but is eusocial in warmer areas, sometimes with solitary and eusocial colonies appearing simultaneously in the same population.[1]

Nests of H. rubicundus are constructed in the ground. Nests are dug in spring by a single female who typically rears a brood of 5-7 offspring; depending on region, these offspring may be workers, future reproductives, or a mixture of both types. The nest entrance is about 5 mm in diameter and, typically, a small pile of soil (called a "tumulus") accumulates outside the entrance as a result of the female's excavations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yanega, D. (1993) Environmental effects on male production and social structure in Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Insectes Sociaux 40: 169-180.
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