Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Adult (Figs 1–5). Head face and vertex covered with appressed, strongly metallic, silvery-white scales, more prominently raised in male. Palpi porrect, white; base of proboscis covered with white scales. Antenna fuscous, apical 1 or 2 flagellomeres white. Labial palp silvery white, slightly upturned. Thorax lead-coloured, shiny, contrasting with forewings. Legs grey, tarsi mostly yellowish white, especially on undersides. Forewing dark fuscous with silver-golden patterning; an outwardly oblique fascia from 1/8 of posterior margin to 1/4 of costa, narrowing towards costa; triangular (dorsal) spot at middle of posterior margin, reaching to middle of wing, smaller triangular costal spot just beyond middle, sometimes touching dorsal spot; small, silvery subapical spot in middle of wing at 3/4; fringe line distinct. Terminal fringe paler. Hindwing pale grey. Abdomen lead-coloured, including vestiture on external genitalia.  Measurements: male: forewing length 2.5–2.8 mm (2.6 ± 0.10, n=11), wingspan 5.5–6.2 mm, 25–31 antennal segments (29.1 ± 1.9, n=11); female: forewing length 2.3–2.8 mm (2.5 ± 0.16, n=10), wingspan 4.8–5.6 mm, 25–29 antennal segments (27.2 ± 1.4, n=8).  Venation (Fig. 6). Forewing with Sc barely visible. R1 a separate vein, connected by persistent trachea to Rs+M stem. Rs+M terminating in five branches, interpreted as Rs2 (possibly with 1) to costa, Rs3+4 to costa just before apex, M1 to dorsum just beyond apex, M2+3 to dorsum and a weakly developed CuA. A1+2 a strong separate vein. Hindwing with Sc barely or not visible, Rs+M a strong vein, bifurcate from ca. 1/4th, upper vein ending in two branches: Rs and M1, lower vein single (M3); Cu and A1+2 separate veins.  Compared to the complicate venation of many other Antispila species, including the type species Antispila metalella, (example in Fig. 7, Antispila treitschkiella) venation reduced with loss of forewing cell, separate M stem and connection between R1 and Rs, loss of Rs1 and in hindwing loss of M2. The venation more closely resembles that of Holocacista rivillei (Fig. 8), which is even more reduced and also lacks Cu in the forewing.  Male genitalia (Figs 9–16). Uncus bar-shaped, with two large setae dorsally. Vinculum very long, anteriorly rounded, posteriorly shallowly bilobed. Valva more or less triangular, pecten on pedicel, with 10–13 comb teeth (Fig. 15); inner margin of valva with setose lobe anterior to pecten pedicel; basally with a triangular protuberance, almost touching that of other valva; transtilla with trapezoid medial plate, sublateral processes relatively short. Juxta anteriorly spade-shaped, about half as long as phallus. Phallus long, anteriorly much widened, at phallotrema with a comb of about 10–12 strong teeth and at left side a very long curved process (Figs 10–12, 16).  Female genitalia (Figs 17–20). Ovipositor with 4–5 cusps at either side (Fig. 19). S8 medially indented, with many papillate setal sockets. Vestibulum with broad, indistinct sclerotization and no spines (Fig. 18).
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© Erik J. van Nieukerken, David L. Wagner, Mario Baldessari, Luca Mazzon, Gino Angeli, Vicenzo Girolami, Carlo Duso, Camiel Doorenweerd

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Distribution

(Fig. 29, 62). In North America, Antispila oinophylla is known with certainty (material cited) from Canada: Ontario, Quebec; USA: Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, New York, Tennessee, and Vermont. Records under Antispila ampelopsifoliella from Maine, Missouri, and Ohio (Brower 1984, Forbes 1923) may partly refer to this species. In Europe introduced into northern Italy, see below. In our experience in the southern Appalachians and New England, at least in the fall, Antispila oinophylla is often the most abundant Antispila species occurring on Vitis.
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© Erik J. van Nieukerken, David L. Wagner, Mario Baldessari, Luca Mazzon, Gino Angeli, Vicenzo Girolami, Carlo Duso, Camiel Doorenweerd

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Antispila oinophylla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 20
Specimens with Barcodes: 30
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Antispila oinophylla

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 19 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNTCTGGATTAGTAGGAACTTCAATAAGATTACTAATTCGAGCTGAATTAGGAATACCTGGGTCTTTAATTTCTAATGATCAAATTTATAACACAATTGTAACTGCTCATGCTTTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCAATTATAATCGGAGGATTTGGTAACTGATTAGTACCTTTAATACTAGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCTTTCCCTCGATTAAATAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCTCCTTCATTAACACTATTAATTTCTAGAAGATTAGTAGAAATAGGCTCTGGAACAGGTTGAACTGTTTACCCCCCTTTATCTTCAAATATTGCACATATAGGAGCTTCAGTTGATCTAACAATTTTTTCATTACATTTAGCAGGTATTTCTTCTATTTTAGGAGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACAATTATTAATATAAAACCAAATTATATAAGTTATAGCCAATTACCTTTATTTGTATGATCTGTAGGGATTACAGCATTACTATTATTGCTTTCTCTTCCAGTTTTAGCCGGAGCTATTACTATATTATTAACAGACCGAAATTTAAATACATCCTTTTTTGACCCTATAGGAGGTGGAGACCCAATTCTATACCAACATCTATTT
-- end --

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Wikipedia

Antispila oinophylla

Antispila oinophylla is a species of moth of the Heliozelidae family. It is found in North America, including Ontario, Quebec, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, New York, Tennessee and Vermont. Records under Antispila ampelopsifoliella from Maine, Missouri and Ohio may also partly refer to this species. In Europe, it is introduced into northern Italy.[1]

The wingspan is 5.5–6.2 millimetres (0.22–0.24 in).

In North America, larvae have been found feeding on Vitis aestivalis (var. aestivalis and var. bicolor), Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia and Vitis vulpina. In Italy, mines were found on various Vitis vinifera cultivars, hybrids and French-American grapes. A preference for some grape cultivars (e.g. Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Muscat) is suggested from observations carried out in mixed cultivar vineyards. Active mines were also found on Parthenocissus quinquefolia. The larvae mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine starts as a rather straight or slightly contorted gallery towards the vein, usually forming a right angle and often following the vein for a short distance. It then again turns away from the vein where it expands into a blotch. The gallery portion, of variable length, is usually later incorporated into the blotch mine. The frass is linear, usually occupies the complete mine width, but occasionally is deposited in a thin line. In the blotch much of the blackish-brown frass is deposited close to the origin in semicircular concentric frass lines.

Etymology[edit]

The epithet oinophylla is derived from the Greek oinos (meaning wine) and phyllon or phylla (meaning leaf) and refers to the larvae that live in the leaves of the grapevine from which wine is made.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ van Nieukerken, Erik; David Wagner; Mario Baldessari; Luca Mazzon; Gino Angeli; Vincenzo Girolami; Carlo Duso; Camiel Doorenweerd (February 22, 2012). "Antispila oinophylla new species (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae), a new North American grapevine leafminer invading Italian vineyards: taxonomy, DNA barcodes and life cycle". ZooKeys 170: 29–77. doi:10.3897/zookeys.170.2617. ISSN 1313-2970. PMC 3288679. PMID 22408380. Retrieved February 24, 2012. 


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