The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. 222 pp. Cambridge, Mass.
  • Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalog of the Ants of the World. 504 pp. Cambridge, Mass.
  • Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
  • Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Formicidae. Pp. 490-495 in: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.). Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part R. Arthropoda 4. Volume 4: Superclass Hexapoda: 279-655. Boulder.
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1983. Novoe semeistvo pozdnemelovykh pereponchatokrylykh - "promezhutochnoe zveno" mezhdu murav'yami i skolioidami. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1983 (No. 3): 65-78. [Russian]
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1996. Ants from Burmese Amber. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1996 (No. 3): 83-89. [Russian]
  • Dlussky, G. M. 1999. Pervaya nakhodka formikoidov v nizhnemelovykh otlozheniyakh severnogo polyshariya. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1999 (No. 3): 62-66. [Russian]
  • Dlussky, G. M. and E. B. Fedoseeva. 1988. Proiskhozhdenie i rannie etapy evolyutsii murav'ev. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. Melovoi Biotsenoticheskii Krizis i Evolyutsiya Nasekomykh: 228 pp. Moskva. [Russian]
  • Grimaldi, D., Agosti, D., and J. M. Carpenter. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208: 1-43.
  • Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Order Hymenoptera. Pp. 242-254 in: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & Quicke, D. L. J. (eds.). History of Insects: 517 pp. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  • Wilson, E. O. 1987. The earliest known ants: an analysis of the Cretaceous species and an inference regarding their social organization. Paleobiology 13: 44-53.


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