IUCN threat status:

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Introduction

Introduction:

Tortricini is comprised of about 406 species in 41 genera; over half of the species are assigned to Acleris, making it one of the largest genera in the entire family. The tribe is distributed nearly worldwide, absent only from New Zealand and southern South America, with its greatest species-richness attained in the Holarctic and Oriental regions (Razowski 1966, 1984, 1986, 2008). Morphological synapomorphies for the tribe include loss of the uncus, development of a subscaphium, and development of a brachiola (a unique membranous, digitate projection from the distal portion of the valva) in the male genitalia; upraised scales on the forewing in both sexes; and often highly polymorphic forewing patterns. Many species of Acleris have numeours named “forms”; Acleris hastiana (L.) has over 100. In addition, adult diapause occurs in many members of this tribe and nowhere else in the family (Powell 1964). Historically, Tortricini were linked with Polyorthini (e.g., Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov 1984) on the basis of the raised scales of the forewing and the preponderance of polymorphism in forewing pattern. However, by the 1990s it had become clear that Polyorthini were most closely allied to Chlidanotinae, and recent molecular studies have shown that Tortricini may be the sister to Cnephasiini. The two tribes share a similar signum and a floricomous ovipostior (present in all Cnephasiini but only a few Tortricini) in the female genitalia. Females of Tortricini lay eggs singly or in small clusters (Powell 1984, Powell & Common 1985). Host preference ranges from extremely narrow to widely polyphagous, with most species recorded from more than one plant family. Larvae are typical of the subfamily, with a “saddle” on the mid-dorsum of A9 representing the fused SD2 pinacula; SD1 and D1 usually on separate pinacula on A9; and an anal fork almost always present (MacKay 1962). The larvae differ from those of most Archipini, Atteriini, and Sparganothini in having a bisetose (rather than trisetose) SV-group on A7. The pupae of some species have an unusual triangular projection from the head.

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