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Introduction

Introduction:

With the exception of the monotypic genus Eulia Hübner, which is Holarctic, Euliini are restricted to the New World, with about 98% of its species and generic diversity concentrated in the Neotropics. The tribe currently includes 670 described species in 87 genera, nearly a fourth of which are monotypic (Brown 2003). Euliae was proposed by Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov (1977) as a subtribe of Cochylini, and many of its members formerly were treated as Archipini by Razowski (1984, 1987). Powell (1986) elevated the group to tribal status and presented a list of the included genera. Brown and Powell (1991) attempted to defined the tribe and identify phylogenetic relationships among its members, but since that time, the number of described species in Euliini has increase by 5-fold. A list of the Neotropical species can be found in Powell et al. (1995). As recent as 1998, Byun et al. (1998) treated Eulia (and relatives) as Cochylini. However, in all contemporary treatments of the family at the world level (e.g., Horak and Brown 1991, Horak 1998, Brown 2005), Euliini is considered a distinct tribe and a useful grouping within Tortricinae.  The monophyly of Euliini has always been questioned, and the tribe has at times been considered a homogenous assemblage of similarly underived tortricine taxa. Brown (1990) identified a unique male foreleg hairpencil as a synapomorphy for the group, but an extremely similar structure also is present in Schoenotenini, an Australiasian tribe. As with many secondary sexual structures, the euliine hairpencil is evolutionarily more labile than other morphological features of adults, i.e., it is secondarily lost in some genera and in some species within genera that otherwise posses it. Hence its absence does not immediately exclude taxa from the tribe. Recent phylogenetic studies based on molecular data (LepTree Consortium) indicate that Euliini is paraphyletic with respect to Cochylini, echoing the view of Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov (1977) who initially proposed the group as a subtribe of Cochylini based primarily on the musculature of the male genitalia. Larvae are leaf-rollers or leaf-folders, although one of more genera may be gall-inducers (e.g., Seticosta) (Brown & Nishida 2003) or leaf litter-feeders (e.g., Anopina) (Brown & Powell 2000). For most species, the number of broods is probably dependent on latitude and climate, i.e., one generation per year in the northern temperate regions, multiple generations in tropical regions.  Brown and Passoa (1998) reviewed the documented larval food plants for the tribe, which encompass a broad array of families from conifers to fruit trees and grapes. While species of Bonagota Razowski, Proeulia Clarke, Clarkeulia Razowski, and Eulia appear to be polyphagous, Apolychrosis Amsel and Apotomops Powell and Obraztsov apparently are restricted to Pinaceae (Prentice 1966, Pogue 1986, Brown and Passoa 1998), and Anopina may be leaf-litter feeders (Powell and Brown 2000). Several species of Proeulia are important pest of grapes and citrus in Chile (Gonzalez 1972, 1981a 1981b, 1983, 1986), and Seticosta rubicola Brown and Nishida is a pest of blackberry in Central America (Brown and Nishida 2003). Adults of most species are nocturnal and attracted to lights, although Hynhamia Razowski has been encountered more frequently in flight traps than in light traps in Costa Rica.

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