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Introduction

Introduction:

Cochylini are the second largest tribe in Tortricinae with about 1,028 species in 175 genera, encompassing over 10% of the species richness of the entire family. The group is species-rich in the Holarctic region, but most diverse in the New World tropics, where many new species remain to be discovered and described. Cochylini are undoubtedly monophyletic based on several morphological characters, including features of forewing venation, male and female genitalia, and larvae. In the male genitalia the gnathos is absent and the aedeagus is robust with non-deciduous cornuti. In all but the least derived members of the tribe, the uncus is absent; in nearly all Cochylini there is well-developed mesal lobe of the transtilla that may serve the same function as the uncus. Also in the putatively most primitive genera, the female frenulum consists of only two acanthi (rather than the common condition of three). While their rank as a tribe within Tortricinae was proposed over 40 years ago by Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov (1977), the phylogenetic position of Cochylini within the subfamily has only recently been illuminated through molecular studies by the LepTree Consortium. Over the past 25 years the group has been treated as a distinct family (Cochylidae or Phaloniidae), subfamily (Cochylinae), and tribe. The larvae of Cochylini usually feed internally in flower heads, seed capsules, stalks, and roots; they rarely feed in rolled leaves (Razowski 1970). They utilize herbaceous plants nearly exclusively, specializing primarily on Asteraceae and Apiaceae, but there are numerous notable exceptions. The tribe includes several important pest species, including the banded sunflower moth (Cochylis hospes Walsingham), the chrysanthemum flower borer (Lorita scarificata (Meyrick)), the European grape berry moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella (Hübner)), and the pale juniper webworm (Aethes rutilana (Hübner)). It also includes several species that have been employed successfully as biological control agents against invasive weeds, such as Lorita baccharivora Pogue against Baccharis halimifolia in Australia (Pogue, 1988; Diatloff and Palmer, 1988), Agapeta zoegana (Linnaeus) against Centauera maculosa in the western U.S. (e.g., Schroeder, 1985; Story, 1985; Müller et al., 1988, 1989; Harris, 1990; Story et al., 1991, 1999, 2000; Steinger and Muller-Scharer, 1992; Powell et al., 2000), and Cochylis atricapitana (Stephens) against Senecio jacobae in Australia (McLaren, 1992). The larvae of Cochylini are distinguished by the enlarged L-pinaculum of T1 which extends posterad beneath the spiracle, and the bisetose L-group on A9. In contrast to most Tortricinae, D1 and SD1 are on a shared pinaculum on A9, which is more common in Olethreutinae.

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