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Introduction

Introduction:

Archipini are the most species-rich tribe in Tortricinae with approximately 1,623 described species in 160 genera. The tribe occurs worldwide, with its greatest species richness in the Australasian region (i.e., 7% of the species are Nearctic in origin, 10% Neotropical, 11% Oceanic, 14% Afrotropical, 16% Indomalayan, 17% Palearctic, and 26% Australasian).   The tribe includes numerous notorious pests, such as the light brown apple moth, the tea tortrix, the carnation leaf-roller, the fruittree leaf-roller, the summer fruit tortrix, the apple tortrix, and many others. In North America, the spruce budworm complex (Choristoneura fumierfana) and relatives receive considerable attention because they are economically important pests of coniferous forest.  Although a few genera currently assigned to Archipini may not belong to the tribe, there is a core group of genera that is almost certainly monophyletic. This group is characterized by a dagger-shaped signum with a capitulum (a small sclerotized lobe on the outer wall of the corpus bursae) in the female genitalia. Males of many Archipini have a forewing costal fold, long sensory setae on the antennae, and a brush of hair below the uncus in the male genitalia. Razowski (1993) proposed the tribe Ramapesiini for those Archipini that lack a sclerotized costa of the valva in the male genitalia; however, the distribution of this character is not easily defined.  While Powell (1964) and Razowski (1976) assoicated Archipini with Sparganothini, Kuznetsov and Stekolnikov (1973, 1977, 1984) placed Archipini as the sister to Cnephasiini. Recent treatments appear to be in consensus that Ceracini is the sister group of Archipini.  The eggs of Archipini usually are deposited in masses of imbrícate rows on the foliage of the host plants. Most species are polyphagous. Larvae are tyically tortricine with a trisetose L-group on T2; D2s on a shared dorsal pincaulum (“saddle”) on A9; D1 and SD1 on separate pinacula on A9 (as in most Tortricinae); SV group on A1, 2, 7, 8, 9 as 3:3:3:2:2; an anal fork present.

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