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Historically, the subfamily Chlidanotinae was comprised of three tribes: Chlidanotini (72 species in 17 genera), Hilarographini (64 species in 6 genera), and Polyorthini (143 species, 20 genera). However, recent molecular analyses (LepTree Consortium) indicate that the subfamily may be paraphyletic, with Polyorthini as the most basal branch of the Tortricidae, followed by a monophyletic Hilarographini+Chlidanotini. For purposes of this review, the subfamily is still considered to include of three tribes mentioned above. Members of the subfamily are primarily pan-tropical is distribution, but penetrate farther north into the Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. Greatest species richness is encountered in the Neotropics, but many species remain to be described worldwide. The monophyly of the group was considered to be supported by morphological characters described by Diakonoff (1977) and Tuck (1981). Poinar and Brown (1993) provided a tree illustrating the phylogenetic relationships among the three tribes. According to Tuck (1981), the Polyorthini are probably the most generalized tribe, and this is consistent with recent molecular analyses. Chlidanotinae was first recognized as a subfamily by Diakonoff (1977), based primarily on features of the male and female genitalia. Its members previously were included in various tortricid tribes (e.g., Tortricini) or in other families (e.g., Glyphipterigidae). Polyorthini had been associated with Tortricini (e.g., Kuznetsov and Stekolnokov 1977, 1984) on the basis of a similarly stellate signum in the female genitalia, distinct patches or rows of raised scales on the forewing, and extreme polymorphism in forewing pattern. Many species in both tribes were described in the polyphyletic genus Peronea. A handful of brightly colored, probably dirunal Polyorthini (i.e., Pseudatteria) formerly were associated with similar-appearing members of Atteria (Atteriini). Members of Chlidanotini and Hilarographini formerly assigned to Glyphipterigidae (sensu Meyrick 1913) (e.g., Clarke 1963) were recognized by Diakonoff (1977, 1986) and Heppner (1978) and transferred by them to Chlidanotinae.