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North American Ecology (US and Canada)Nymphalis vaualbum is resident across southern Canada, and is migratory to broad distances north and south (Scott 1986). Habitats are decidous woodand. Host plants include species from many families including Betulaceae, Salicaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Moraceae. Eggs are laid on the host plant in small clusters. Individuals overwinter as adults, sometimes gregariously. There is one flight each year with pupal emergence July 15-early Aug. (Scott 1986). Adults mate and lay eggs in the spring after hibernation.