Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Introduction:

Traditional "Limenitidinae" of authors (e. g., Harvery 1991) was a paraphyletic group composed of multiple clades: Biblidini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, Coloburini, and Limenitidini. The latter tribe, which is the sister group of Heliconiinae, is here considered to be the "true" Limenitidinae. The rest are more closeley-related to Apaturinae and Nymphalinae (or part of Nymphalinae, in the case of Coloburini).

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Leptree.net

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Introduction

Traditional "Limenitidinae" of authors (e. g., Harvery 1991) was a paraphyletic group composed of multiple clades: Biblidini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, Coloburini, and Limenitidini. The latter tribe, which is the sister group of Heliconiinae, is here considered to be the "true" Limenitidinae. The rest are more closeley-related to Apaturinae and Nymphalinae (or part of Nymphalinae, in the case of Coloburini).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:4,192Public Records:1,261
Specimens with Sequences:3,511Public Species:198
Specimens with Barcodes:3,155Public BINs:134
Species:457         
Species With Barcodes:408         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Limenitidinae

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Wikipedia

Limenitidinae

Tanaecia lepidea- Grey Count from (Adoliadini)
Adelpha syma of the Limenitidini is sometimes placed in Limenitis

Limenitidinae is a subfamily of butterflies that includes the admirals and relatives. The common names of many species and genera reference military ranks or – namely the Adoliadinititles of nobility (e.g., count, duke, earl, and marquis), in reference to these butterflies' large size, bold pattern and dashing flight. In particular, the light stripe running lengthwise across the wings of many Limenitidini has reminded earlier authors of officers' (e.g. admiral, commander, commodore) shoulder marks and epaulets.

In flight, many of these butterflies have the habit of flapping their wings, so that the (usually) bright upperside and the cryptic underside alternate for the observer, then gliding for prolonged distances, with the motionless wings held outstretched. The common names of some Limenitidinae—"aeroplanes", "clippers" or "gliders"—refer to this flight pattern.

Contents

Systematics

The Biblidinae are sometimes merged here. The present subfamily is also sometimes included as a tribe Limenitidini in the Nymphalinae. But in fact, their closest living relatives seem to be the Heliconiinae.[1]

The Limenitidinae are traditionally divided into four tribes, of which the Parthenini are the most basal lineage and the others form a close-knit and more apomorphic radiation. While this basic layout is likely to be fairly correct, there are a few genera which cannot be easily assigned to the three "modern" tribes and seem to be somewhat intermediate. In particular, the delimitation of the Limenitidini versus the Neptini is in need of more study.[2]

Genera and selected species

The genera of Limenitidinae, sorted per tribe in the presumed phylogenetic sequence and with some species also listed, are:[2]

Tribe Parthenini Reuter, 1896

Tribe Adoliadini Doubleday, 1845

Tribe Limenitidini Behr, 1864

Tribe Neptini Newman, 1870

Pseuodoneptis coenobita is sometimes placed in the Limenitidini. It resembles Neptis species, but probably due to mimicry rather than parallel evolution

Incertae sedis

Footnotes

  1. ^ Wahlberg & Brower (2007a,b)
  2. ^ a b Wahlberg & Brower (2007a), and see references in Savela (2008)

References

  • Savela, Markku (2008): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms – Limenitidinae. Version of 2008-AUG-31. Retrieved 2009-APR-07.
  • Wahlberg, Niklas & Brower, Andrew V.Z. (2007a): Tree of Life Web Project – Limenitidinae. Version of 2007-JAN-15. Retrieved 2009-APR-07.
  • Wahlberg, Niklas & Brower, Andrew V.Z. (2007b): Tree of Life Web Project – Nymphalidae. Version of 2007-FEB-19. Retrieved 2009-APR-07.
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