Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

The smallest of the three "derived" lycaenid subfamilies, and sister to the diverse Theclinae, according to Eliot (1973). The coppers are mainly Holarctic, with some tropical representatives.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:2111
Specimens with Sequences:1867
Specimens with Barcodes:1740
Species:266
Species With Barcodes:234
Public Records:457
Public Species:131
Public BINs:77
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Wikipedia

Lycaeninae

Lycaeninae, the coppers, are a subfamily of the gossamer-winged butterflies (Lycaenidae).

The relationships of the Lycaenidae are not fully resolved. Sometimes the Polyommatinae and Theclinae are included in the Lycaeninae; in particular the Theclinae tribe Eumaeini contains many similar taxa. Consequently the delimitation of the Lycaeninae is by no means definitely resolved; many genera await conformation of placement. Regardless, it is today generally considered better to restrict the Lycaeninae to the immediate relatives of the type genus Lycaena, and one or two clades close to that group.[1]

The Lycaenidae sensu stricto can be divided into two tribes:[1]

Heliophorini

Lycaenini

A few genera included in the Lycaeninae in the most extensive circumscriptions are now placed in subfamilies as distinct as the Lipteninae or Poritiinae. Finally, there are some genera of uncertain status as regards their systematics and taxonomic validity. They might, if valid, be members of the monophyletic Lycaeninae, but this requires confirmation:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Brower (2008)

References[edit]

  • Brower, Andrew V.Z. (2008): Tree of Life Web Project – Lycaeninae. Version of 2008-APR-29. Retrieved 2009-FEB-18.

Further reading[edit]

  • Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001)
  • James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011)
  • Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008)
  • Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002)
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