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[[ Anostomoides ZBK ]]
Anostomidae currently includes 12 genera and approximately 140 species. It includes small fishes of less than 100 mm standard length and larger species up to 400 mm SL, the latter usually included in commercial and subsistence fisheries ( Géry , 1977; Garavello & Britski, 2003). The genus Anostomoides ZBK has only two valid species: A. atrianalis ZBK , of small adult size (~200 mm SL), and so far recorded only from río Orinoco, and A. laticeps , a larger species that attains ca. 400 mm SL of wide distribution in the Amazon Basin. During ecological studies conducted by one of the authors (JZ) in the lower rio Xingu rapids, Pará State, several specimens of an undescribed species of Anostomoides ZBK were collected. The fish were readily distinguished by their conspicuous color pattern and are herein described as a new species.