Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: toadfish (English), pez-perro (Espanol), sapo (Espanol)
 
Batrachoides boulengeri (Gilbert & Starks, 1904)

Sorcerer toadfish,     Boulenger's toadfish


Body elongate, depressed at front, compressed at rear; head broad, depressed,  without filaments between eyes; eyes small; mouth strongly oblique, lower jaw projecting; teeth pointed; 2 strong solid spines on upper opercle and 2 more below and behind those; dorsal fin with 3 solid spines, spiny and soft parts joined; dorsal rays III + 28-30; anal rays 26-27; dorsal and anal fins not joined to tail fin; a conspicuous pore at base of 16th-19th interradial membranes on inner side of pectoral fin; 2 lateral lines, the upper broken below posterior third of second dorsal fin and continued below posterior most part of fin as 4-15 pores; no light organs; body covered with small imbedded scales; head and breast scaleless  scales on nape to before transverse lateral line canal on nape.



Generally brown with diffuse dark saddles on back; belly whitish.

Maximum size, 40 cm.

Inhabits bays and estuaries.

Depth: 1-30 m?

El Salvador to Panama.   
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Biology

Inhabits intertidal zones (Ref. 9277).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Central Pacific, and is thought to be distributed from El Salvador to Panama. However, all known records are from the Bay of Panama and the Gulf of Montijo in Panama (Collette and Russo 1981), where given its shallow water habitat, it has an extent of occurrence of less than 20,000 km². Its distribution outside of these areas needs to be confirmed.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Central Pacific: known only from Panama Bay, Panama.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (G) - 30 (G)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 40.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 362 mm SL
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Max. size

36.2 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 9277))
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits intertidal zones (Collette 1995) and it can also be found on soft substrate in estuaries to depths of 20 m.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Depth range based on 6 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 8.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 8.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel, Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits intertidal zones (Ref. 9277).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves, octopus/squid/cuttlefish, sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, No pelagic larva, No pelagic phase
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B1ab(iii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Collette, B., Acero, A. & Betancur, R.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is only known from two locations in Panama (Panama Bay and the Gulf of Montijo), and has an extent of occurrence of less than 20,000 km². Major threats to this restricted range, shallow water species are severe habitat destruction from extensive coastal development and pollution. It is listed as Vulnerable under Criterion B.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is common in Panama Bay.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This shallow-water and near-shore species is threatened by habitat loss from extensive coastal development and pollution within its restricted range.
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Vulnerable (VU) (B1ab(iii))
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, there are some limited protected areas within Panama Bay in which the species may occur.
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