The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bouchard, P., Y. Bousquet, A. Davies, M. Alonso-Zarazaga, J. Lawrence, C. Lyal, A. Newton, et al. 2011. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta). ZooKeys, issue 88. 1-972
  • Browne, J. and C.H. Scholtz, 1999. A phylogeny of the families of Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera). Systematic Entomology 24(1): 51-84. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from;jsessionid=B7A86D183CB16400134583247E292176.d03t01?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false.
  • Buchler, E.R., T.B. Wright, and E.D. Brown 1981. On the functions of stridulation by the passalid beetle Odontotaenius disjunctus (Coleoptera, Passalidae). Animal Behaviour. 29(2): 483-486. Retreived 20 May 2013 from
  • Cotinis, Cresswell, S., Harpootlian, P., and Quinn, M. 13 May 2013. "Species Odontotaenius disjunctus - Horned Passalus." Bugguide. Iowa State University. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from
  • Gray, I.E. 1946. Observations on the Life History of the Horned Passalus. American Midland Naturalist. 35(3): 728-746. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from
  • Lawrence, J. F., and A. F. Newton, Jr. / Pakaluk, James, and Stanislaw Adam Slipinski, eds. 1995. Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names). Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson, vol. 2. 779-1006
  • Mahoney, S.J. 2009. Taxonomic and Host Catalogue of the Tachinidae of America North of Mexico: Genus Zelia. Tachnidae Resources. North American Dipterists Society. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from
  • Schuster, J. C., 1984. Passalid Beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) Inhabitants of Leaf-Cutter Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Detritus. Florida Entomologist. 67(1): 175-176. Retrieved. 21 May 2013 from
  • Schuster, J.C. 1975. Comparative behavior, acoustical signals, and ecology of New World Passalidae (Coleoptera). Diss. University of Florida, Gainesville. Retrieved from
  • Schuster, J.C. 2005. "Passalidae." Generic Guide to New World Scarab Beetles. University of Nebraska State Museum. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from
  • Schuster, J.C. and L.B. Schuster, 1985. Social Behavior in Passalid Beetles (Coleoptera: Passalidae): Cooperative Brood Care. Florida Entomologist. 68(2): 266-272. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from
  • Schuster, J.C. and L.B. Schuster, 1997. "The evolution of social behavior in Passalidae (Coleoptera)." pp. 260-269 in The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids, J.C. and B.J. Crespi. Cambridge University Press.
  • Schuster, J.C., 1994. Odontotaenius floridanus new species (Coleoptera: Passalidae): a second U.S. passalid beetle. Florida Entomologist. 77(4): 474-479. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from


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