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The Histerinae is very diverse in form and numbers of species, containing probably around one-half of all histerid species. The group includes some of the most commonly encountered species, particularly those associated with dung. However, habits of Histerinae are extremely diverse, including others associated with dead wood and other rotting vegetation, fungus, vertebrate nests, and the colonies of social insects. The inclusion of the exclusively myrmecophilous and termitophilous Hetaeriinae in this group has long been suspected, but has only recently been demonstrated conclusively (Caterino & Vogler, 2002).