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The Niponiinae is a very enigmatic group of histerids, containing only the single genus Niponius, with 22 known species (Mazur, 1997). As the name implies, a large proportion of the known species are Japanese in distribution. However, species are also known from scattered locations throughout southeastern Asia, from India to tropical Australia. The species are similar ecologically to the Trypanaeinae/Trypeticinae lineage. All are cylindrical in shape and are apparently specialized bark beetle predators (Gardner, 1930; Lewis, 1885), although Lewis asserts that they do not enter transverse galleries, but rather tunnel under bark.