- male parameres conchoid and asetose (in rare cases, e.g. Pseudamara arenaria, parameres have some apical setae)
- mandible lacking scrobal seta (various taxa may have numerous short fine setae in the scrobe and in rare cases, e.g. Metius robustus, there may be a single more substantial seta. However, this condition is recognizably different than the single robust fixed seta in the scrobe of non-harpalinae taxa)
- Configuration of abdomen:Tergum VIII partially or totally invaginated with anterolateral apophyses present. Pygidial gland opening near the posterior margin of tergum VIII.
- most species spray hydrocarbons and formic acid in defense secretions (Moore, 1979)
- male chromosome number in most species 2n=36+x
- high-grade wedge-pushing ability
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimen Records: 8923
Specimens with Sequences: 6974
Specimens with Barcodes: 6226
Species With Barcodes: 938
Public Records: 2145
Public Species: 545
Public BINs: 388
Harpalinae is a huge subfamily of ground beetles. The Harpalinae contain the most apomorphic ground beetles, displaying a wide range of forms and behaviors. Some are, rare among ground beetles, omnivores or even herbivores.
Many closely related families have been treated as subordinate taxa of the Harpalinae by various authors. Among these are the Dryptinae, Lebiinae (including Cyclosominae, Mormolycinae, Odacanthinae, Perigoninae), Licininae (including Chlaeniinae, Oodinae), Orthogoniinae, Panagaeinae, Platyninae, Pseudomorphinae, Pterostichinae (including Zabrinae). Here, they are considered independent families within the harpaline (sensu lato) assemblage, and this is also tentatively assumed for the enigmatic monotypic genus Ginema.
At least 4 large and several smaller supertribes can be distinguished. The former "Pterostichitae" on the other hand seem to be, as presently delimited, a paraphyletic assemblage, but probably also contains a number of tribes closer to each other than to other Harpalinae. The clade around the type genus Pterostichus is thus recognized as subfamily Pterostichinae here.
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