Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

This large clade contains more than half of carabid species. It is supported as monophyletic by both morphological and molecular data (Maddison et al., 1999; Ober, 2002).

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

The Harpalinae comprise those carabids with conjunct mesocoxae (as explained on the page for the Carabidae Conjunctae, and which also have the following features:
  • male parameres conchoid and asetose (in rare cases, e.g. Pseudamara arenaria, parameres have some apical setae)
  • mandible lacking scrobal seta (various taxa may have numerous short fine setae in the scrobe and in rare cases, e.g. Metius robustus, there may be a single more substantial seta. However, this condition is recognizably different than the single robust fixed seta in the scrobe of non-harpalinae taxa)
  • Configuration of abdomen:Tergum VIII partially or totally invaginated with anterolateral apophyses present. Pygidial gland opening near the posterior margin of tergum VIII.
In addition, members of this group have the following properties:
  • most species spray hydrocarbons and formic acid in defense secretions (Moore, 1979)
  • male chromosome number in most species 2n=36+x
  • high-grade wedge-pushing ability

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:7,760Public Records:1,492
Specimens with Sequences:6,137Public Species:413
Specimens with Barcodes:5,470Public BINs:263
Species:983         
Species With Barcodes:735         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Harpalinae

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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