The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Ber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., 2, 117.
- Compagno, Leonard J. V. / Hamlett, William C., ed. 1999. Checklist of Living Elasmobranchs. Sharks, Skates, and Rays: The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. 471-498
- Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
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