The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arnett, R. 1985. American Insects. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Beccaloni G., Scoble M., Kitching I., Simonsen T., Robinson G., Pitkin B., Hine A. & Lyal C. (2015). LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index (version 12.3, Jan 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hall, D., J. Butler. 1999. "University of Florida Department of Entomology and Nematology" (On-line). Accessed November 28, 2001 at
  • Holland, W. 1910. The Butterfly Book. Golden City, New York: Doubleday, Page, & Company.
  • Milne, L., M. Milne. 1992. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • P. L. Whittaker, 1984. The insect fauna of mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum, Loranthaceae) in southern Texas. Southw. Nat. 29:435-444, from p. 443.
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Preston-Mafham, R., K. Preston-Mafham. 1993. The Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behavior. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Struttman, J. 2001. "National Prairie Wildlife Research Center" (On-line). Accessed November 28, 2001 at
  • Tveten, J., G. Tveten. 1996. Butterflies of Houston & Southeast Texas. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.


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