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The genus Corumbataia ZBK belongs to the Hypoptopomatinae, a group of small-sized armored catfishes composed by 17 genera and approximately 80 species (Schaefer, 2003; Ribeiro et al. 2005) distributed throughout cis-Andean South America from Venezuela to Northern Argentina (Schaefer, 1998).
Corumbataia ZBK was erected by Britski (1997) who defined the genus by the following combination of characters: exposed portion in the middle of the scapular bridge formed only by the coracoid (i.e., narrow cleithra which are covered by skin medially), compound hypurals 1 and 2 completely fused to the compound hypurals 3-5, atrophied maxillary barbel, and an infraorbital canal entering the infraorbital series via the pterotic-supracleithrum.
Corumbataia cuestae ZBK occurs in small streams of the Rio Tietê (upper Paraná basin), and C. tocantinensis ZBK occurs in the Rio Araguaia and Rio Tocantins. In this paper, we describe a third species of Corumbataia ZBK , from a headwater stream of the Rio Sucuriú , upper Paraná River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Brazil.