The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bandi, C., M. Sironi, G. Damiani, L. Magrassi, C. A. Nalepa, U. Laudani, and L. Sacchi. 1995. The establishment of intracellular symbiosis in an ancestor of cockroaches and termites. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 259(1356):293-299.
  • Boudreaux, H. B. 1979. Arthropod Phylogeny with Special Reference to Insects. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Deitz, L. L., C. Nalepa, and K. D. Klass. 2003. Phylogeny of the Dictyoptera re-examined (Insecta). Entomologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 61(1):69-91.
  • Desalle, R., J. Gatesy, W. Wheeler, and D. Grimaldi. 1992. DNA sequences from a fossil termite in Oligo-Miocene amber and their phylogenetic implications. Science 257(5078):1933-1936.
  • Eggleton, P. 2001. Termites and trees: a review of recent advances in termite phylogenetics. Insectes Sociaux 48:187-193.
  • Grandcolas, P. and P. Deleporte. 1996. The origin of protistan symbionts in termites and cockroaches: A phylogenetic perspective. Cladistics 12(1):93-98.
  • Grimaldi, D. 1997. A fossil mantis (Insecta: Mantodea) in Cretaceous amber of New Jersey, with comments on the early history of the Dictyoptera. American Museum Novitates 3024:1-11.
  • Hennig, W. 1981. Insect Phylogeny. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Jarzembowski, E. A. 1994. Fossil Cockroaches or Pinnule Insects? Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 105:305-311.
  • Kambhampati, S. 1995. A phylogeny of cockroaches and related insects based on DNA sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 92:2017–2020.
  • Kevan, D. K. M. 1977. The higher classification of the orthopteroid insects. Mem. Lyman Entomol. Mus. Res. Lab. 4 (Spec. Publ. No. 12):1-79.
  • Klass, K. D. 1997. The external male genitalia and the phylogeny of Blattaria and Mantodea. Bonner zoologische Monographien 42:1-341.
  • Klass, K. D. 1998. The ovipositor of Dictyoptera (Insecta): Homology and ground-plan of the main elements. Zoologischer Anzeiger 236 (2-3):69-101.
  • Klass, K. D. 1998. The proventriculus of the Dicondylia, with comments on evolution and phylogeny in Dictyoptera and Odonata (Insecta). Zoologischer Anzeiger 237(1):15-42.
  • Klass, K. D. 1999. The pregenital abdomen of a mantid and a cockroach: Musculature and nerve topography, with comparative remarks on other Neoptera (Insecta: Dictyoptera). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 46(1):3-42.
  • Klass, K. D. , C. Nalepa, and N. Lo. 2008. Wood-feeding cockroaches as models for termite evolution (Insecta: Dictyoptera): Cryptocercus vs. Parasphaeria boleiriana. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(3):809-817.
  • Klass, K. D. 2003. Relationships among the principal lineages of Dictyoptera inferred from morphological data. Entomologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 61(2): 134-137.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1995. Forty years' insect phylogenetic systematics. Zoologische Beiträge NF 36(1):83-124.
  • Lo, N. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics of Dictyoptera: insights into the evolution of termite eusociality and bacterial endosymbiosis in cockroaches. Entomologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 61(2): 137-138.
  • Lo, N., C. Bandi, H. Watanabe, C. Nalepa, and T. Beninati. 2003. Evidence for cocladogenesis between diverse dictyopteran lineages and their intracellular endosymbionts. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(6):907-913.
  • Lo, N., G. Tokuda, H. Watanabe, H. Rose, M. Slaytor, K. Maekawa, C. Bandi, and H. Noda. 2000. Evidence from multiple gene sequences indicates that termites evolved from wood-feeding cockroaches. Current Biology 10(13):801-804.
  • McKittrick, F. A. 1964. Evolutionary study of cockroaches. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoirs 389:1-197.
  • Nalepa, C. A. and C. Bandi. 2000. Characterizing the ancestors: Paedomorphosis and termite evolution. Pages 53-75 in Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbiosis, Ecology. T. Abe, D. E. Bignell, and M. Higashi, eds. Kluwer Academic Publishing, Dordrecht.
  • Nalepa, C. A., D. E. Bignell, and C. Bandi. 2001. Detritivory, coprophagy, and the evolution of digestive mutualisms in Dictyoptera. Insectes Sociaux 48:194-201.
  • O. Béthoux and J. W. Schneider. 2011. Redescription of the holotype of Phyloblatta gaudryi (Agnus, 1903) (Pennsylvanian; Commentry, France), an exceptionally well-preserved stem-dictyopteran. Geodiversitas 33(4):625-635
  • Thorne, B. L. 1990. A case for ancestral transfer of symbionts between cockroaches and termites. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 241:37–41.
  • Thorne, B. L. and J. M. Carpenter. 1992. Phylogeny of the Dictyoptera. Systematic Entomology 17:253–268.
  • Vrsansky, P. 2003. Unique assemblage of Dictyoptera (Insecta - Blattaria, Mantodea, Isoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous of Bon Tsagaan Nuur in Mongolia. Entomological Problems 33(1-2): 119-151.
  • Ware, J. L., J. Litman, K.-D. Klass, and L. A. Spearman. 2008. Relationships among the major lineages of Dictyoptera: the effect of outgroup selection on dictyopteran tree topology. Systematic Entomology 33(3):429–450.
  • Wheeler, W. C., M. Whiting, Q. D. Wheeler, and J. M. Carpenter. 2001. The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics 17:113-169.


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