The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • Bitsch, C. and J. Bitsch. 1998. Internal anatomy and phylogenetic relationships among apterygote insect clades (Hexapoda). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 34:339-363.
  • Bitsch, C. and J. Bitsch. 2000. The phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa of apterygote hexapods. Zoologica Scripta 29:131-156.
  • Bitsch, C. and J. Bitsch. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods among the mandibulate arthropods: a cladistics analysis based on comparative morphological characters. Zoologica Scripta 33(6):511-550.
  • Bitsch, J. 2001. The hexapod appendage: Basic structure, development and origin. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 37: 175-193.
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  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
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  • Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Superclass Hexapoda. Volumes 3 and 4 of Part R, Arthropoda 4 of Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America.
  • Chapman, R. F. 1998. The Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., New York.
  • Chapman, R. F. 1998. The Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., New York.
  • Chapman, R. F. 1998. The Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., New York.
  • Chapman, R. F. 1998. The Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., New York.
  • Daly, H. V., J. T. Doyen, and A. H. Purcell III. 1998. Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Deuve, T. 2001. The epipleural field in hexapods. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 37:195-231.
  • Dindall, D. L. 1990. Soil Biology Guide. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Eberhard, W. G. 1985. Sexual Selection and Animal Genitalia. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
  • Evans, H. E. 1993. Life on a Little-Known Planet. New York, Lyons & Burford.
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  • Gaunt, M. W. and M. A. Miles. 2002. An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19(5):748-761.
  • Gereben-Krenn, B.-A. and G. Pass. 1999. Circulatory organs of Diplura (Hexapoda): the basic design in Hexapoda. International Journal of Insect Morphology 17:60-68.
  • Gillot, C. 2005. Entomology. Third Edition. Springer, Netherlands.
  • Gillot, C. 2005. Entomology. Third Edition. Springer, Netherlands.
  • Grandcolas, P., ed. 1997. Origin of Biodiversity in Insects: Phylogenetic Tests of Evolutionary Scenarios. Mémoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle vol. 173. Éditions du Muséum, Paris. 354 pp.
  • Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology 75:1152-1160.
  • Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press.
  • Gupta, A. P. 1979. Arthropod Phylogeny. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 762 pp.
  • Haas, F., D. Waloszek, and R. Hartenberger. 2003. Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis, a new marine hexapod from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slates, and the origin of Atelocerata and Hexapoda. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 3:39-54.
  • Hennig, W. 1981. Insect Phylogeny. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Hopkin, S.P. 1997. Biology of the Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford University Press. 330 pp.
  • Horridge, G. A. 1975. The Compound Eye and Vision of Insects. Oxford University Press, Clarendon, Oxford.
  • Jamieson, B. G. M., R. Dallai, and B. Afzelius. 1999. Insects: Their Spermatozoa and Phylogeny. Science Publishers, Enfield, N. H.
  • Jones, J. C. 1977. The Circulatory System of Insects. Thomas, Springfield.
  • Kjer, K. M. 2004. Aligned 18S and insect phylogeny. Systematic Biology 53(3):506-514.
  • Klass, K. D. and N. P. Kristensen. 2001. The ground plan and affinities of hexapods: Recent progress and open problems. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 37:265-298.
  • Koch, M. 2000. The cuticular cephalic endoskeleton of primarily wingless hexapods: ancestral state and evolutionary changes. Pedobiologia 44:374-385.
  • Koch, M. 2001. Mandibular mechanisms and the evolution of hexapods. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 37:129-174.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1975. The phylogeny of hexapod "orders". A critical review of recent accounts. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 13:1–44.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1981. Phylogeny of insect orders. Annual Review of Entomology 26:135-157.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1991. Phylogeny of extant hexapods. Pp. 125-140 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1995. Forty years' insect phylogenetic systematics. Zoologische Beiträge NF 36(1):83-124.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1998. The groundplan and basal diversification of the hexapods. Pages 281-293 in Arthropod Relationships. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1981. Phylogeny of insect orders. Annual Review of Entomology 26:135-157.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1991. Phylogeny of extant hexapods. Pp. 125-140 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:2327-2345.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. Pages 141–179 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Labandeira, C. C. 1997. Insect mouthparts: Ascertaining the paleobiology of insect feeding strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:153-193.
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  • Labandeira, C.C. 1994. A compendium of fossil insect families. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 88:1-71.
  • Lawrence, J. F., E. S. Nielsen, and I. M. Mackerras. 1991. Skeletal Anatomy and Key to Orders. Pages 3-32 in The Insects of Australia. Volume 1. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
  • Luan, Y., J. M. Mallatt, R. Xie, Y. Yang, and W. Yin. 2005. The phylogenetic positions of three basal-hexapod groups (Protura, Diplura, and Collembola) based on ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2005 22(7):1579-1592.
  • Luan, Y., Y. Zhang, Q. Yue, J. Pang, R. Xie, and W. Yin. 2003. Ribosomal DNA gene and phylogenetic relationships of Diplura and lower hexapods. Science in China, Series C: Life Sciences 46(1):67-76.
  • Merritt, R.W. and K.W.Cummins, eds. 1984. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Second Edition. Kendall-Hunt.
  • Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai, and F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299(5614):1887-1889.
  • Nation, J. L. 2002. Insect Physiology and Biochemistry. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
  • Naumann, I. D., P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn, eds. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Niven, J. E., C. M. Graham, and M. Burrows. 2008. Diversity and evolution of the insect ventral nerve cord. Annual Review of Entomology 53:253-271.
  • Pass, G. 2000. Accessory pulsatile organs: Evolutionary innovations in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 45:495-518.
  • Proctor, H. C. 1998. Indirect sperm transfer in arthropods: Behavioral and evolutionary trends. Annual Review of Entomology 43:153-174.
  • Ross, A. J. and E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Hexapoda. Pages 363-426 in The Fossil Record 2. M. J. Benton, ed. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • S. Hirst and S. Maulik. 1926. On some arthropod remains from the Rhynie Chert (Old Red Sandstone). Geological Magazine 63:69-71
  • Schaller, F. 1971. Indirect sperm transfer by soil arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 16:407-446.
  • Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of Insect Morphology. McGraw-Hill, New York. 667 pp.
  • Snodgrass, R. E. 1952. A Textbook of Arthropod Anatomy. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, N.Y. 363 pp.
  • Stehr, F. W. 1987. Immature Insects, vol. 1. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal/Hunt. 754 pp.
  • Stehr, F. W. 1991. Immature Insects, vol. 2. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal/Hunt. 974 pp.
  • Stys, P. and S. Bilinski. 1990. Ovariole types and the phylogeny of hexapods. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 65:401-429.
  • Stys, P. and S. Bilinski. 1990. Ovariole types and the phylogeny of hexapods. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 65:401-429.
  • Stys, P., J. Zrzavy, and F. Weyda. 1993. Phylogeny of the Hexapoda and ovarian metamerism. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 68:365-379.
  • Tschinkel, W.R. 1987. Fire ant queen longevity and age: estimation by sperm depletion . Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 80:263-266.
  • Weidner, H. 1982. 11. Morphologie, Anatomie und Histologie. Handbuch der Zoologie. IV. Band: Arthropoda. 2. Hälfte: Insecta. 1. Teil: Allgemeines. J. G. Helmcke, D. Starck, and H. Wermuth, eds. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
  • Weidner, H. 1982. 11. Morphologie, Anatomie und Histologie. Handbuch der Zoologie. IV. Band: Arthropoda. 2. Hälfte: Insecta. 1. Teil: Allgemeines. J. G. Helmcke, D. Starck, and H. Wermuth, eds. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
  • Weidner, H. 1982. 11. Morphologie, Anatomie und Histologie. Handbuch der Zoologie. IV. Band: Arthropoda. 2. Hälfte: Insecta. 1. Teil: Allgemeines. J. G. Helmcke, D. Starck, and H. Wermuth, eds. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.
  • Wheeler, W. C., M. Whiting, Q. D. Wheeler, and J. M. Carpenter. 2001. The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics 17:113-169.
  • Willmann, R. 1998. Advances and problems in insect phylogeny. Pages 269–279 in Arthropod Relationships. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Wilson, E. O. 1988. The diversity of life. Pp. 68-78 in H. J. Blij (ed.), Earth '88. Changing Geographic Perspectives. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
  • WoRMS (2013). Hexapoda. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1278
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  • von Lieven, A. F. 2000. The transformation from monocondylous to dicondylous mandibles in the Insecta. Zoologischer Anzeiger 239:139-146.

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