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Camaenidae

Camaenidae is a family of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicoidea, the typical snails and their allies.

This is one of the most diverse families in the clade Stylommatophora.

These snails occur in a wide variety of habitats in the tropics of Eastern Asia and Australasia.[3]

A large American group, which is mainly represented by species from the Caribbean, has until recently also be subsumed under the Camaenidae. However, latest molecular phylogenetic studies showed that these species represent a different family, the Pleurodontidae.[4][5]

This molecular study also implies that the Bradybaenidae, currently being treated as a distinct family within the Helicoidea, is a junior synonym of the Camaenidae.

Anatomy[edit]

Camaenid shells are often quite large (25–50 mm), but a number of species also have small shells (<5 mm). Shells reveal a remarkable diversity in shape and colour, which is partly linked with their life style. For instance, arboral species tend to have large and conical shells, whereas terrestrial species often have rather flat shells. The shells of some taxa can be vividly coloured, showing banding or other conspicuous patterns, but others are plain and uniform.

This family is defined by a missing diverticulum and a missing stimulatory organ. It is suggested that the family Camaenidae as currently delimited is a polyphyletic taxon. There are no synapomorphies uniting this diverse family. The American group is closely related to the families Helicidae and Helminthoglyptidae, while the Australasian group is a closely related to the Bradybaenidae.[6]

In order to retain the Camaenidae as a monophyletic clade, the Neotropical Pleurodontidae will need to be removed as an independent family, and the Bradybaenidae will need to be included. This taxonomic decision is currently pending a formal suggestion and wider acceptance among systematists, however.

In this family, the number of haploid chromosomes lies between 26 and 30 (according to the values in this table).[7]

Subfamilies[edit]

Division into subfamilies has been suggested, however, given the unresolved relationships on the family level, the subfamilial treatments must be considered hypothetical. They do not reflect the results of comprehensive phylogenetic analyses, and are not corroborated by current molecular data.

The following three subfamilies have been recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) (as based on a suggestion of Alan Solem)

  • subfamily Camaeninae Pilbry, 1895 - synonyms: Amphidrominae Kobelt, 1902;[8] Hadridae Iredale, 1937; Xanthomelontidae Iredale, 1937; Chloritidae Iredale, 1938; Papuinidae Iredale, 1938; Calyciidae Iredale, 1941; Planispiridae Iredale, 1941; Cristovalinae Schileyko, 2003
  • subfamily Rhagadinae Iredale, 1938[9]
  • subfamily Sinumeloninae Solem, 1992[10]

A different taxonomy of the Caemenidae was used by Schileyko (1998–2003).[11]

Genera[edit]

Currently, 87 genera are accepted within the family Camaenidae:[2][12]

Taxa with main occurrence in South-East Asia

Taxa with main occurrence in Papua New Guinea to Solomon Islands

Australian genera In Australia, the Camaenidae comprise 131 currently recognized genera, most of which are endemic to the continent.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1895). Manual of Conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata. Helicidae - Volume VII. 9(33a): xxxii.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Köhler F. (2010). "Three new species and two new genera of land snails from the Bonaparte Archipelago in the Kimberley, Western Australia (Pulmonata, Camaenidae)". Molluscan Research 30(1): 1-16.
  3. ^ Cuezzo M. G. (2003). "Phylogenetic analysis of the Camaenidae (Mollusca: Stylommatophora) with special emphasis on the American taxa". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 138(4): 449-476. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2003.00061.x.
  4. ^ Wade, C.M., Hudelot, C., Davison, A., Naggs, F., Mordan, P.B. Molecular phylogeny of the helicoid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora: Helicoidea), with special emphasis on the Camaenidae. Journal of Molluscan Studies 73: 411-415.
  5. ^ Bouchet, P., Rocroi, J.P. Classification and Nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47: 1-397.
  6. ^ Scott B. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the Camaenidae (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora: Helicoidea). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 62: 65-73. Abstract
  7. ^ Barker G. M.: Gastropods on Land: Phylogeny, Diversity and Adaptive Morphology. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited pages: 139 and 142.
  8. ^ Kobelt W. (1902). Systematisches Conchilien-Cabinet, ed. 2, Bd. 1, Abt 13, Theil 2: 1033.
  9. ^ Iredale T. (1938). The Australian Zoologist 9(2): 112.
  10. ^ Solem A. (1992). Records of the South Australia Museum, Monograph series 2: 161.
  11. ^ Schileyko A. A. (1998-2003). Treatise on Recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs. Ruthenica supplement 2.
  12. ^ ITIS
  13. ^ Maassen W. J. M. (2009). "Remarks on the genus Chloritis in Sulawesi, Indonesia, with the descriptions of two new species (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Camaenidae)". Zoologische Mededelingen 83 HTM.
  14. ^ Stanisic, J. 1996. New land snails from boggomoss environments in the Dawson Valley, southeastern Queensland (Eupulmonata: Charopidae and Camaenidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 39: 343-354
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stanisic, J., Shea, M., Potter, D. and Griffiths, O. 2010. Australian Land Snails – Volume 1: A field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press, Mauritius, 591 pp.
  16. ^ a b Iredale, T. 1933. Systematic notes on Australian land shells. Records of the Australian Museum 19: 37-59
  17. ^ Iredale, T. 1938. A basic list of the land Mollusca of Australia. Pt III. Australian Zoologist 9: 83-124
  18. ^ Solem, A. 1992. Camaenid land snails from southern and eastern South Australia, excluding Kangaroo Island. Pt 1. Systematics, distribution and variation. Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series 2: 1-338
  19. ^ Köhler, F. 2011. Australocosmica, a new genus of land snails from the Kimberley, Western Australia (Eupulmonata, Camaenidae). Malacologia, 53(2): 199−216
  20. ^ Pilsbry, H.A. 1890. in Tryon, G.W. & Pilsbry, H.A. Manual of Conchology. Philadelphia : Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences Ser. 2 Vol. 6 324 pp.
  21. ^ Iredale, T. 1937. An annotated check list of the land shells of South and Central Australia. South Australian Naturalist 18: 6-59
  22. ^ Thiele, J. 1931. Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. Jena : Gustav Fischer pp. 377-778
  23. ^ Stanisic J. (24 August) 2009. Crikey steveirwini gen. et sp. nov. from montane habitats in the Wet Tropics of northeastern Queensland, Australia (Gastropoda: Eupulmonata: Camaenidae). Zootaxa 2206: 62–68. abstract.
  24. ^ a b Köhler, F. 2011. The camaenid species of the Kimberley Islands, Western Australia (Stylommatophora: Helicoidea). Malacologia, 54(1-2): 203–406
  25. ^ a b c d Clark, S. 2009. A review of the land snail genus Meridolum (Gastropoda: Camaenidae) from central New South Wales, Australia. Molluscan Research, 29:61-120.
  26. ^ Zhang, W.-H. & Shea, M. (2008). A new genus and species of land snail of the family Camaenidae from New South Wales. Molluscan Research, 28: 123-132.
  27. ^ Köhler, F. & Shea, M. (2012). Youwanjela, a new genus of land snail from the Kimberley, Western Australia (Eupulmonata, Camaenidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution, 88: 25-31.

Further reading[edit]

  • Köhler F. (2009) "Phylogeny and evolution of the Camaenidae in north-western Australia: A model case for the study of speciation and radiation". In: McDoughall C. & Hall N. (Eds.) Molluscs 2009: Program and abstracts. Malacological Society of Australasia, Brisbane, p. 55.
  • Wade C. M., Hudelot C., Davison A. Naggs, F. & Mordan P. B. (2007). "Molecular phylogeny of the helicoid land snails (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora: Helicoidea), with special emphasis on the Camaenidae". Journal of Molluscan Studies 73(4): 411-415. doi:10.1093/mollus/eym030.
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