Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs in principal river beds, in upstream parts of rivers, downstream rapids, in backwater zones or on stony bottoms of pools with dead tree trunks. Active at dusk. Piscivorous. Emits loud grumblings (Ref. 35381). Secretes toxic mucus and the wounds caused by its pectoral spines are very painful. The female can preserve spermatozoids by coating them with original maternal secretions and inserting them in the epithelium of its genital tract (Ref. 27188). The presence of sperm in the mucus of the female's genital tract is indicative of internal fertilization (Ref. 35381).
  • Ortega, H. and R.P. Vari 1986 Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Peru. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (437):1-25. (Ref. 6329)
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Distribution

South America: Amazon, Corantijn, Essequibo, Orinoco, and Paraná River basins; also in major rivers of the Guianas.
  • Lundberg, J.G. and M.W. Littmann 2003 Pimelodidae (Long-whiskered catfishes). p. 432-446. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36506)
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Widespread in South America.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 385 mm SL
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Max. size

38.5 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 36506))
  • Lundberg, J.G. and M.W. Littmann 2003 Pimelodidae (Long-whiskered catfishes). p. 432-446. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36506)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

benthopelagic; freshwater; pH range: 6.5 - 7.2; dH range: 18
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
  • Gilbert, R.J. and T.R. Roberts 1972 A preliminary survey of the freshwater food fishes of Ecuador. International Center for Aquaculture Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. Project A.I.D./csd-2780. 49 p. (Ref. 9585)
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