The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Compagno, Leonard J. V. / Hamlett, William C., ed. 1999. Checklist of Living Elasmobranchs. Sharks, Skates, and Rays: The Biology of Elasmobranch Fishes. 471-498
- Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, no. 1, vol 1-3. 2905
- McEachran, John D., and Katherine A. Dunn. 1998. Phylogenetic Analysis of Skates, a Morphologically Conservative Clade of Elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia, vol. 1998, no. 2. 271-290