There are currently three recognized species in this genus: 
- Stegophilus insidiosus J. T. Reinhardt, 1859
- Stegophilus panzeri (C. G. E. Ahl, 1931)
- Stegophilus septentrionalis G. S. Myers, 1927
S. insidiosus originates from the São Francisco River basin in Brazil, S. panzeri is from the lower Amazon River basin in Brazil, and S. septentrionalis is from Orinoco River basin in Venezuela. Stegophilus species grow to between 4.1–4.4 centimetres (1.6–1.7 in) SL. S. insidiosus is a true parasite living in the gill chambers of larger fishes, including catfishes like Sorubim lima; it uses its strong teeth to bite into the gill filaments to suck the blood.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Stegophilus in FishBase. February 2012 version.
- Ferraris, Carl J., Jr. (2007). "Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types" (PDF). Zootaxa 1418: 1–628. http://silurus.acnatsci.org/ACSI/library/biblios/2007_Ferraris_Catfish_Checklist.pdf.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Stegophilus panzeri" in FishBase. July 2007 version.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Stegophilus septentrionalis" in FishBase. July 2007 version.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Stegophilus insidiosus" in FishBase. July 2007 version.
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