Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Animal / predator
bladder of Utricularia australis is predator of Crustacea

Animal / predator
bladder of Utricularia minor is predator of Crustacea
Other: sole host/prey

Animal / predator
bladder of Utricularia vulgaris sens.lat. is predator of Crustacea
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

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Known predators

Crustacea is prey of:
Clevelandia
Citharichthys sordidus
Pleuronichthys verticalis
Citharichthys xanthostigma
Actinopterygii
Alburnus alburnus
bleak
Geococcyx californianus
Aves
Nematoda
Gambusia
Heterandria formosa
Decapoda
Floridichthys carpio
Lophogobius cyprinoides
high carnivores
Copepoda
Callinectes sapidus
Sialis fuliginosa
Plectrocnemia conspersa
Macropelopia goetghebueri
Trissopelopia longimana
Zavrelimyia barbatipes
Other suspension feeders
Mya arenaria
Crassostrea virginica
Polychaeta
Nereis
Crustacea
Anthopleura elegantissima
Huso huso
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Pseudodoras niger
Lates niloticus
Amphiprion percula
Coris aygula
Caretta caretta
Gavia immer
Gavia stellata
Diomedea epomophora
Eudocimus ruber
Anas fulvigula
Recurvirostra americana
Larus californicus
Larus canus
Fratercula cirrhata
Mimus polyglottos
Plectrophenax nivalis
Corvus caurinus
Lagenorhynchus australis
Lagenorhynchus cruciger
Phocoenoides dalli
Delphinapterus leucas
Monodon monoceros
Mesoplodon europaeus
Balaenoptera musculus
Balaena mysticetus
Eubalaena glacialis
Enhydra lutris
Lontra canadensis
Mustela vison
Arctocephalus australis
Phoca largha
Monachus tropicalis
Mirounga leonina
Ardea alba
Cebus olivaceus
Dasyprocta punctata
Herpestes edwardsii
Lutrogale perspicillata
Osbornictis piscivora
Prionailurus iriomotensis
Calloplesiops altivelis

Based on studies in:
USA: California (Estuarine, Intertidal, Littoral)
USA: California, Southern California (Marine, Sublittoral)
USA: Alaska, Aleutian Islands (Coastal)
England, River Thames (River)
Netherlands: Wadden Sea, Ems estuary (Estuarine)
USA: Florida, Everglades (Estuarine)
USA: Maryland, Chesapeake Bay (Estuarine)
England: River Medway (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • A. G. Hildrew, C. R. Townsend and A. Hasham, 1985. The predatory Chironomidae of an iron-rich stream: feeding ecology and food web structure. Ecol. Entomol. 10:403-413, from p. 412.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
  • C. A. Simenstad, J. A. Estes, K. W. Kenyon, Aleuts, sea otters, and alternate stable-state communities, Science 200:403-411, from p. 404 (1978).
  • F. B. van Es, A preliminary carbon budget for a part of the Ems estuary: The Dollard, Helgolander wiss. Meeresunters. 30:283-294, from p. 292 (1977).
  • G. E. MacGinitie, Ecological aspects of a California marine estuary, Am. Midland Nat. 16(5):629-765, from p. 652 (1935).
  • K. H. Mann, Case history: The River Thames. In: River Ecology and Man (R. T. Oglesby, C. A. Carlson, J. A. McCann, Eds.), Academic Press, New York and London, pp. 215-232 (1972), from p. 224.
  • K. H. Mann, R. H. Britton, A. Kowalczewski, T. J. Lack, C. P. Mathews and I. McDonald, Productivity and energy flow at all trophic levels in the River Thames, England. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (P
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at http://animaldiversity.org. http://www.animaldiversity.org
  • T. A. Clark, A. O. Flechsig, R. W. Grigg, Ecological studies during Project Sealab II, Science 157(3795):1381-1389, from p. 1384 (1967).
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
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Known prey organisms

Crustacea preys on:
primary producers
protozoa
coconut

Cyrtosperma
Pandanus
Artocarpus altilis
Gekkonidae
detritus
periphyton
algae
sediment bacteria
phytobenthos
meibenthos
phytoplankton
fungi
bacteria
fine particulate organic matter
Macoma
meiofauna
Crustacea
Callinectes sapidus

Based on studies in:
USA: California (Estuarine, Intertidal, Littoral)
Polynesia (Reef)
USA: California, Southern California (Marine, Sublittoral)
USA: Alaska, Aleutian Islands (Coastal)
England, River Thames (River)
Netherlands: Wadden Sea, Ems estuary (Estuarine)
USA: Florida, Everglades (Estuarine)
USA: Maryland, Chesapeake Bay (Estuarine)
England: River Medway (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • A. G. Hildrew, C. R. Townsend and A. Hasham, 1985. The predatory Chironomidae of an iron-rich stream: feeding ecology and food web structure. Ecol. Entomol. 10:403-413, from p. 412.
  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
  • C. A. Simenstad, J. A. Estes, K. W. Kenyon, Aleuts, sea otters, and alternate stable-state communities, Science 200:403-411, from p. 404 (1978).
  • F. B. van Es, A preliminary carbon budget for a part of the Ems estuary: The Dollard, Helgolander wiss. Meeresunters. 30:283-294, from p. 292 (1977).
  • G. E. MacGinitie, Ecological aspects of a California marine estuary, Am. Midland Nat. 16(5):629-765, from p. 652 (1935).
  • K. H. Mann, Case history: The River Thames. In: River Ecology and Man (R. T. Oglesby, C. A. Carlson, J. A. McCann, Eds.), Academic Press, New York and London, pp. 215-232 (1972), from p. 224.
  • K. H. Mann, R. H. Britton, A. Kowalczewski, T. J. Lack, C. P. Mathews and I. McDonald, Productivity and energy flow at all trophic levels in the River Thames, England. In: Productivity Problems of Freshwaters, Z. Kajak and A. Hillbricht-Ilkowska, Eds. (P
  • T. A. Clark, A. O. Flechsig, R. W. Grigg, Ecological studies during Project Sealab II, Science 157(3795):1381-1389, from p. 1384 (1967).
  • W. A. Niering, Terrestrial ecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands, Ecol. Monogr. 33(2):131-160, from p. 157 (1963).
  • W. E. Odum and E. J. Heald, The detritus-based food web of an estuarine mangrove community, In Estuarine Research, Vol. 1, Chemistry, Biology and the Estuarine System, Academic Press, New York, pp. 265-286, from p. 281 (1975).
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

The evolutionary relationships among the major groups of crustaceans—and among crustaceans and other arthropods—have been hotly debated for many years, first based (mainly) on morphology alone and later based on inferences derived from molecular data as well. Different analytical approaches and data sets have sometimes yielded very different conclusions that have been difficult to reconcile. Disagreements persist not only about the relationships among groups, but also about the delineation of the groups themselves and their naming and appropriate taxonomic rank. Given the extraordinary diversity of the Crustacea, it is perhaps unsurprising that addressing these complex questions has been so challenging.

  • Drumm, D.T. 2010. Phylogenetic Relationships of Tanaidacea (Eumalacostraca: Peracarida) Inferred from Three Molecular Loci. Journal of Crustacean Biology 30(4): 692-698.
  • Ferrari, F.D. 2010. Morphology, Development, and Sequence. Journal of Crustacean Biology 30(4): 767-769.
  • Jenner, R.A. 2010. Higher-level crustacean phylogeny: Consensus and conflicting hypotheses. Arthropod Structure & Development 39: 143–153.
  • Jenner, R.A. 2011. Use of Morphology in Criticizing Molecular Trees. Journal of Crustacean Biology 31(2): 373-377.
  • Kakui, K., T. Katoh, S.F. Hiruta, N. Kobayashi, and H. Kajihara. 2011. Molecular Systematics of Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) Based on 18S Sequence Data, with an Amendment of Suborder/Superfamily-Level Classification. Zoological Science 28(10): 749-757.
  • Koenemann, S., R.A. Jenner, M. Hoenemann, T. Stemmea, and B.M. von Reumont. 2010. Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships. Arthropod Structure & Development 39: 88–110.
  • Neiber, M.T., T.R. Hartke, T. Stemme, A. Bergmann, J. Rust, et al. 2011. Global Biodiversity and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Remipedia (Crustacea). PLoS ONE 6(5):e19627. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019627
  • Pérez-Losada, M., J.T. Høeg, and K.A. Crandall. 2009. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea). BMC Biology 7:15. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-15
  • Regier J.C. and A. Zwick. 2011. Sources of Signal in 62 Protein-Coding Nuclear Genes for Higher-Level Phylogenetics of Arthropods. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23408. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023408
  • Regier J.C., J.W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, et al. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.
  • Richter, S. and G. Scholtz. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the Malacostraca (Crustacea). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 39: 113-136.
  • von Reumont, B.M.. R.A. Jenner, M.A. Wills, et al. 2012. Pancrustacean Phylogeny in the Light of New Phylogenomic Data: Support for Remipedia as the Possible Sister Group of Hexapoda. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29(3): 1031–1045.
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Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Minerals conserved during moult: crustaceans
 

Crustaceans conserve minerals when moulting by absorbing calcium carbonate from their shell before it is shed.

       
  "The external shell gives the crustaceans the problem it gave the trilobites. It will not expand and since it completely encloses their bodies, the only way they can grow is to shed it periodically. As the time for the moult approaches, the animal absorbs much of the calcium carbonate from its shell into its blood. It secretes a new, soft wrinkled skin beneath the shell. The outgrown armour splits and the animal pulls itself out, leaving it more or less complete, like a translucent ghost of its former self. Now its skin is soft and it must hide, but it grows fast and swells its body by absorbing water and stretching out the wrinkles of its new carapace. Gradually this hardens and the animal can again venture into a hostile world." (Attenborough 1979:58)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1979. Life on earth. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 319 p.
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Functional adaptation

Multiple joints allow circular movement: crustaceans
 

Limbs of crustaceans allow movement along several planes by clustering two or three joints on a limb, each working in a different direction.

       
  "The limbs, which are tubular and jointed, are operated by internal muscles. These extend from the end of one section, along its length, to a prong from the next section which projects across the joint. When the muscle contracts between these two attachment points, the limb hinges. Such joints can only move in one plane, but crustaceans deal with that limitation by grouping two or three on a limb, sometimes close together, each working in a different plane so that the end of the limb can move in a complete circle." (Attenborough 1979:58)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, David. 1979. Life on Earth. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 319 p.
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