Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

The Taoniinae is much more diverse in genera and species than the Cranchiinae.

Brief diagnosis:

A cranchiid ...

  • without cartilagenous tubercules on mantle except, occasionally, at funnel and nuchal locking points.
  • with one to three photophores of very different sizes and shapes on eyes.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms IV not hectocotylized in males.

  2. Head
    1. Eyes on stalks in paralarvae and in some juveniles.

  3. Funnel
    1. Funnel not fused to head laterally.

  4. Mantle.
    1. Cartilagenous strips on mantle absent. Cartilagenous tubercules, when present, occur only at funnel and nuchal locking-points.

  5. Photophores
    1. Eyes with one to three photophores of very different sizes and shapes.

      Figure. Ventral view of a damaged eye of Galiteuthis armata, showing the most common photophore arrangement in the Taoniinae. In preserved squid, the light-guide region becomes opaque causing the medial photophore to look very large with a swollen medial margin. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

  6. Viscera
    1. Stomach larger than caecum.

      Figure. Anterolateral view of a paralarva of Megalocranchia fisheri, Hawaiian waters. Stalked eyes in which the eye and optic lobe are separated from the brain by a long optic stalk, is unique to the Cranchiidae and are present in young stages of virtually all taoniins. Photograph by R. Young.

Comparison of genera

Fins small, separate, paddle-like Short, lanceolate fins inserting on broadest point on gladius Moderate, lanceolate fins inserting on mantle Long, lanceolate, terminal fins Funnel valve
Tubercules at funnel-mantle fusion
Tubular eyes in juveniles Hooks or hook-like suckers on clubs Three photo-phores on eyeball Photo-phores on viscera Suckers on tentacle stalk in 4 series. Distally only*
Bathothauma Y Y*
Helicocranchia Y
Sandalops Y Y
Liguriella Y Y
Mesonychoteuthis Y/N Y
Galiteuthis Y Y/N Y
Taonius Y * Y Y
Teuthowenia Y Y Y Y
Megalocranchia Y Y Y*
Egea Y Y
* May be present in young.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 459 specimens in 7 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 440 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 5844
  Temperature range (°C): -1.576 - 24.115
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.296 - 44.916
  Salinity (PPS): 33.221 - 38.973
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.158 - 8.036
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.107 - 3.500
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.317 - 175.179

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 5844

Temperature range (°C): -1.576 - 24.115

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.296 - 44.916

Salinity (PPS): 33.221 - 38.973

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.158 - 8.036

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.107 - 3.500

Silicate (umol/l): 1.317 - 175.179
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:42Public Records:2
Specimens with Sequences:39Public Species:2
Specimens with Barcodes:38Public BINs:2
Species:4         
Species With Barcodes:4         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Taoniinae

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

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